Among the various carbon-based materials, graphene and its chemical derivatives, aroused as potential substrates for assembling nanocomposite for energy-based applications, due to its superior electrochemical reactivity, high conductivity and exceptional electrode stability .Within this class, graphene oxide
(GO) has revealed excessive coordinating potential with other materials to form GO based electrode material, due to the presence of oxygenic functional groups on the basal aromatic lattice [22, 23].
The solid structure, with graphene oxide
and polymers trapped inside, is finally heated to burn off the polymers and leave a 3D, porous graphene structure called graphene aerogel behind.
More significantly, unlike carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene oxide
can be easily produced in large quantities from graphite as a precursor, an important attribute for use as a filler additive .
The sensors are made with graphene oxide
, a material very sensitive to water vapour.
Zhang, "Surface enhanced Raman scattering of Ag or Au nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide
for detection of aromatic molecules," Chemical Science, vol.
Every single one of graphenes' derivatives, like graphene oxide
(GO), chemically reduced graphene oxide
(RGO), thermally reduced graphene (TRG), and chemically modified graphene (CMG), have different properties compared to pure graphene sheet.
At a shorter time (<4 seconds) of plasma etch exposure, graphene oxide
can be generated .
As a rising star in the carbon family, reduced graphene oxide
(rGO) has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years due to its excellent electronic properties (zero gap semiconductor where the conduction band and the valence band touch each other), outstanding ability as an electron acceptor and transport, chemical stability, and high surface area, which have been used to obtain hybrid materials with superior photocatalytic performance .
(GO) is a single layer of carbon nanomaterial composed of [sp.sup.2] hybridized carbon atoms obtained by chemical oxidation of graphite powder because its surface can provide a large number of [pi]-[pi] and hydrogen-bond binding sites, and it was often studied as a carrier of antitumor drugs in recent years [19-21].
(GO) is one of the most important derivatives of graphene, consisting of a layered structure with a hexagonal ring of carbon network and oxygen functional groups bearing on the basal planes and edges, and can be well dispersed in multiple polar mediums [15, 26, 27].
G band of graphite appears at 1583 [cm.sup.-1] and the shift of G band in graphene oxide
toward larger amounts can result from G and D' (due to activation of defects) bands overlapping and decline in layers numbers .
Hydrazine hydrate, phosphate buffer solution, pyrrole, graphene oxide
, and butylated hydroxytoluene were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (MO, USA).