EPA has specified best available technologies for removing THMs and HAA5s
: enhanced coagulation, enhanced softening, or granular activated carbon.
EPA for regulated DBPs (i.e., 80 [micro]g/L THM4 and 60 [micro]g/L HAA5) (U.S.
Based on these criteria, we chose to evaluate all individual THM and HAA species, as well as THM4, HAA5, HAA9, the sum of all brominated THMs and HAAs (THM-Br and HAA-Br, respectively), and TOX.
Miguel Del Toral, regulations manager for groundwater and drinking water from the EPA's Region 5 (Chicago), said, "Essentially systems will need to do some monitoring to find the worst DBP locations." Once these locations are determined, the new MCL for TTHM and for HAA5 will have to be met at all sites.
A system also can apply for a waiver by submitting all past monitoring data that indicates TTHM levels less than 40 parts per billion (ppb) and HAA5 less than 30 ppb.
However, post hoc analysis of each item showed that this difference is attributed only to the difference in the repetition of haa5. The children with SLI and their age-matched peers did not differ in ability to use the aspect markers zo2, gan2, and zyu6 in the repetition task.
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Table 1 summarizes the annual frequency of births in this population, as well as the distribution of TTHM and HAA5 concentrations by year over the period of the study.
At facilities B and C, HAA5 data were available only for 2000 and 2002.
Slightly higher TTHM and HAA5 concentrations were observed at the top of tank No.
However, there was no chlorine residual in the top of the tank, and HAA5 actually decreased in the top of the tank.
EPA has recently established a maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 60 lug/L for HAA5
and has revised the MCL to 80 [micro]/L for TTHMs (54).