typing in Singapore was initiated in late 2011, so it remains unknown if Ad7 substrain replacement, specifically the circulating pediatric HAdV
strain in early 2011, was a factor in the outbreak we report.
The large number of HAdV
41 encephalitis cases indicates a unique epidemiology in Sri Lanka.
Moreover, a large 2007 Canadian study in the Toronto region failed to find any HAdV
-14 strains among the 200 strains that were submitted; circulating HAdV
strains were largely subtypes 1, 2, and 3 (77).
Clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAdV
infections among inpatients are shown in Tables 2 and 3.
are divided into 7 species (HAdV
-A-G) on the basis of DNA genome homology.
In Malaysia, 2 researchers (12,13) described the role of HAdV
in causing ARD (12).
most commonly cause acute respiratory disease; however, depending on the infecting HAdV
serotype and tropism resulting from differential host receptor use, the wide variety of symptoms can include pneumonia, febrile upper respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and gastroenteritis (4).
DNA was first detected in the CSF specimen collected on December 12, 2003, by an in-house pan-AdV PCR screening assay conducted as part of the study protocol.
species are usually not associated with respiratory disease in otherwise healthy humans.
Clinical manifestations associated with HAdV
infection include fever, acute respiratory illness, gastroenteritis, and conjunctivitis.
Both the HADV
and the VADV terms exhibit a pair of positive and negative maxima near the center of the mesocyclone, consistent with the effect of advection by the storm-relative winds and vertical motion.