The first part of the research (1) comprised a survey of HBB in Casey.
Such lack of jobs provides one strong incentive for HBB to emerge in a region (Blanchflower 2000; Bogenhold and Staber 1991).
67.4% of the total number of small businesses were HBB as of June 2004 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2004).
The survey instrument based on the model of regional and urban business development (Jain 2009) was sent to all HBB on The City of Casey (2) business register.
The survey demonstrated that 56% of HBB used the services of business associations in Casey.
A minority of five of the 140 responding HBB used industry specific, state level or national business associations.
HBB found the median usefulness of programs to be about 1.67 on this scale.
General information services have been used by 57.3% of HBB. In essence, these programs and services are mainly providing information about various aspects of running a business, including but not limited to business planning, legal and tax compliance and access to other government services.
35% of the members of the local business associations in Casey are HBB, with the majority of the rest being SMEs.
Perhaps the low level of function and service provision by the local business association is related to the nature of the businesses they represent: predominantly HBB and SMEs, both of which are not well organised.
On the other hand this may not happen as the inherent weakness of local business associations in Casey may well be the reflection of a parallel weakness in the HBB they represent, and therefore beyond redemption.
This research shows that local business associations have the limited role of providing information by functioning as knowledge distribution nodes, and provide minimal business support activity for HBB in urban regions such as Casey in Australia.