study reported breast milk levels of brominated flame retardants other than PBDEs: tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBB-PA) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs
) (Carignan et al.
The first ten chemicals for risk evaluation included the Cyclic Aliphatic Bromides Cluster (HBCD
The incorporation of insulin into HBCD
polymers significantly caused enhanced drug absorbance across the nasal barrier and decreased blood glucose concentration (24).
W zwiazku ze sprzecznymi doniesieniami o mozliwosci zmniejszenia stezenia trwalych organicznych substancji chemicznych podczas laktacji w mleku matek, Harrad i Abdallah (2015)  podjeli sie okreslenia stezenia TBBPA i innych bromowanych zwiazkow opozniajacych spalanie, takich jak PBDE i HBCD
, w ciagu roku u 10 kobiet karmiacych.
Harrad et al., "Levels and trends of PBDEs and HBCDs
in the global environment: status at the end of 2012," Environment International, vol.
These flame retardants are designed to replace hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD
), which has been the leading flame retardant used in expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foam applications, but is being phased out in the European Union (EU), Japan and other countries.
They will produce ICL's FR-122P and Albemarle's GreenCrest polymeric flame retardants, which have to replace the hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD
) flame retardant.
Flame retardant chemicals such as HBCD
(hexabromocyclododecane) and pentaBDE (pentabromodiphenyl ether) raise concerns for human health and the environment, including potential reproductive, developmental, and neurological effects and can be persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to aquatic organisms.
An astonishing 41% of all the foods tested were contaminated with a fire retardant chemical called HBCD
Available figures show the most widely used BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A) with a global demand of 170,000 tonnes in 2004, alongside decabromodiphenyl ether (Deca-BDE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD
), pentabromodiphenyl ether (Penta-BDE), and octabromodiphenyl ether (Octa-BDE), for which worldwide market demands in 2001 were 56,100,16,700, 7,500, and 3,790 tonnes, respectively .
Wang et al., "Levels and distribution of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD
) in environmental samples near manufacturing facilities in Laizhou Bay area, East China," Journal of Environmental Monitoring, vol.
Worse, it contains toxic fire retardants such as HBCD
(hexabromocyclododecane), a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that will be phased out in Europe by next year.