HBOCsHemoglobin-Based Oxygen-Carrying Solution
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Colloids, such as hetastarch, dextran, and HBOCS, are large-molecular substances that remain in the intravascular compartment and expand the intravascular volume.
Only a few previous studies have investigated the use of HBOCS in birds.
To conduct a retrospective file review of a cohort of Afrikaner individuals presenting for genetic counselling for HBOCS.
To satisfy legal precedents that demand detection of a banned substance by two different technologies, we undertook to develop both a test that could serve as a rapid and simple screen to identify the presence of HBOCs and a separate confirmation method to provide irrefutable evidence of doping.
With the use of HBOC solutions in transfusion medicine, the concentrations of interfering material may also be considerably greater than those encountered with typical hemolyzed samples.
HBOCs have several potential advantages: the shelf life would be much longer than the 42-day period for which red cells can be stored; room temperature storage would be permitted; the solutions would not have blood group antigens; and HBOCs can be treated to achieve viral inactivation.
Animal studies report half-lives of 36-48 h for cross-linked or polymerized HBOCs [3], whereas anecdotal reports from human studies suggest half-lives of 3-12 h.
The newer generation of HBOCs have been chemically modified to increase the molecular mass of the hemoglobin, thus minimizing renal clearance of hemoglobin while prolonging the life of the HBOC circulating in blood.
The laboratory should confirm that interference is caused only by the HBOC and not by hemolysis, since the correction factors for interference from hemolysis will differ from those of HBOCs because of the contribution of intracellular components of red cells (e.
HBOCs in plasma resemble massive hemoglobinemia and create a challenge for the chemistry laboratory to accurately measure analytes in their presence.