2] was strongly expressed in the mucosal epithelial cells of all AIA specimens and in 56% of HCNA specimens.
We also demonstrated increased expression of iNOS activity in the mucosal epithelial cells in all AIA specimens and 51% of HCNA specimens, whereas iNOS activity was not detectable in control specimens.
The strong expression of MHC class II antigens in mucosal epithelial cells of AIA specimens and approximately 50% of HCNA specimens adds further proof to an active inflammatory process even though the appendix appeared normal at operation and by histologic examination.
They demonstrated tumor necrosis factor [Alpha] (TNF-[Alpha] and interleukin 2 (IL-2) messenger RNA expression in germinal centers, submucosa, and lamina propria layer in a subset of HCNAs from patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis.
In this study, we used the expression of these markers of inflammation as a tool to describe at a molecular level the extent of inflammation in acutely inflamed appendices (AIAs) and HCNAs from patients with clinical diagnoses of appendicitis.
Thirty-nine HCNAs removed from patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis of appendicitis, which showed no evidence of inflammation throughout the entire appendix on conventional hematoxylin-eosin staining, were included in the study.
This study shows a consistent profile of inflammatory mediator expression in all appendix specimens in patients with AIAs and in approximately 50% of HCNAs from patients with clinical diagnosis of appendicitis.
The practice of early appendectomy as a successful treatment has resulted in a relatively high incidence of HCNAs removed at surgery from patients presenting with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis.