When exploring the mechanisms of perceptions of HCWS that impact on employee attitudinal and behavioral outcomes, researchers have generally focused on job satisfaction, procedural justice, and perceived organizational support as mediators (Macky & Boxall, 2007).
Hypothesis 3: HCWS and LMX will have an interactive effect on work engagement, such that the positive relationship between HCWS and work engagement will be stronger when LMX is low.
2014), and in the joint effects of HCWS and task proficiency on organizational commitment (Boon & Kalshoven, 2014).
Hypothesis 4: Work engagement will mediate the interaction effects of HCWS and LMX on creativity, such that the indirect effect of HCWS on creativity via work engagement will be stronger when LMX is low.
We asked the human resource department directors of 350 randomly selected firms to randomly select (a) supervisors to complete surveys on employees' creativity, and (b) two subordinates of each supervisor to complete measures of HCWS, work engagement, and LMX.
The results also indicated that there was good discriminant validity between LMX and HCWS--although the correlation was very weak--and that HCWS were positively related to creativity; hence, Hypothesis 1 was supported initially.
Using multiple regression analysis to test our hypotheses, we first included the controls in Model 1 and then entered HCWS in Model 2 to examine the main effect of HCWS.
We then added the main effects (LMX) in Model 3 and the interaction of HCWS and LMX in Model 4, and found that the interactive term of HCWS and LMX was significantly related to creativity ([beta] = -.
The results show that for individuals with low levels of LMX (-1 SD), HCWS had a positive effect on creativity (b = .
We predicted in Hypothesis 3 that HCWS and LMX would have an interaction effect on work engagement, and to test this we included the controls in Model 6 and then added the main effects (HCWS and LMX) and their interaction term in Models 7 and 8, respectively.
We predicted in Hypothesis 4 that work engagement would mediate the interaction effect of HCWS and LMX on creativity.
We aimed to link HCWS with creativity and to consider the implications for HRM practices as to when and how HCWS might be used effectively to develop employee work engagement and stimulate employees' creativity.