HDDEHeavy Duty Diesel Engine
HDDEHonorable Discharge, Dependency Arising Since Enlistment
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The results indicate that the copolymers are composed of AM, MAA, AMPS, HDDE, and SA.
As shown in UV-Vis spectra, besides the absorption band at around 203 nm corresponding to the strong ultraviolet absorption peak of amide group in HDDE, absorption peaks of 228 and 285 nm are also observed, which can be attributed to the E2 and B bands of the aromatic ring structure of HDDE.
To achieve a better insight into the hydrophobic monomer of HDDE incorporated into the polymers, fluorescence spectrum was carried out.
The proton peaks of the HDDE structure unit are clearly demonstrated in the PAMAHS spectrum, which indicates that the HDDE monomer is incorporated into the PAMAHS polymer.
PAMAHS begins to lose weight at 330.4[degrees]C, which is higher than that of PAMAS at 300.8[degrees]C, indicating the thermal stability of PAMAHS is heightened due to the incorporation of HDDE. The reason is that HDDE's incorporation enhances the rigidity of the copolymer chains, which leads to the increase of the steric hindrance for the internal motion of molecular chains.
The [c.sup.*] value decreases gradually along with the increase of HDDE content.
As is known to all, the higher [E.sub.a] means higher sensitivity to temperature for an individual polymer; therefore, the lower [E.sub.a] of PAMAHS-1.5 indicates again that PAMAHS-1.5 has better heat-resisting property than PAMAHS-0.5 and PAAHO owing to the incorporation of more HDDE. The enhancement of the copolymer chains stiffness and the increase of molecular thermal motion resistance result in the destruction of interaction associations between copolymer chains weakening, and the copolymer solution can keep a relatively high viscosity at high temperature.
HDDE as capsaicin derivative possesses the characteristics as above and exhibits remarkable antibacterial activity.
aureus respectively, implying that PAMAHS exhibits considerable inhibitory effects on the two bacteria due to the incorporation of HDDE. Moreover, antibacterial performance is enhanced along with the increase of HDDE monomer content in the copolymer.
Owing to the capsaicin-like HDDE incorporation of PAMAHS backbones, it increases the copolymer chain rigidity which interferes with the molecular motion and improves the thermal stability of PAMAHS.
ABBREVIATIONS AIBN 2, 2'-azobis (2-methylpropionitrile) AM acrylamide AMPS 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid EOR enhanced oil recovery HAPAMs hydrophobically association polyacrylamides HDDE N, N'-((2-hydroxy-4, 5-dimethylbenzene-l, 3-diyl) dimethanediyl) bisprop-2-enamide IZR inhibition zone rate N-MA N-methylol acrylamide PAMAHS P (AM-MAA-AMPS-HDDE-SA) PAMAS P (AM-MAA-AMPS-SA) SA stearyl acrylate SDS sodium dodecyl sulfate REFERENCES
n x m DABC DABC.D DABC.T HDDE IG_RS 20 x 5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 20 x 10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 20 x 20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 50 x 5 0.30 0.35 0.42 0.61 1.14 50 x 10 0.30 0.36 0.46 0.64 0.89 50 x 20 0.23 0.29 0.42 0.49 0.75 100 x 5 0.34 0.40 0.44 0.80 1.51 100 x 10 0.29 0.35 0.47 0.63 0.97 100 x 20 0.27 0.33 0.47 0.60 0.84 Overall mean 0.19 0.23 0.30 0.42 0.69 TABLE 3: ARPD of each algorithm on Taillard benchmark set (B = 2).