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HDFNHubble Deep Field North
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HDFN is a serious blood disorder in a fetus or newborn that occurs when red cell incompatibility exists between the blood types of a mother and baby.
Antenatal first trimester screening enables timely detection of alloantibodies and treatment of HDFN, and an additional benefit of the screening program is the detection of alloantibodies relevant in case of transfusion to the mother.
Antibodies to the Mur and the Mia antigen can cause hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTR) and HDFN. (15) PreciseType detects the Hemoglobin S mutation in the Beta Globin gene.
Where fathers are homozygous D-, there is no risk of HDFN for the current pregnancy or subsequent pregnancies that may follow.
There are 3 basic clinical scenarios for which the DAT is used: (1) investigation of suspected alloimmune-mediated hemolytic transfusion reactions, (2) evaluation for HDFN, and (3) investigation of autoimmune-mediated hemolytic anemia.
The Kell red cell antigen includes 24 different members, with at least eight antigens associated with hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), with the K1 antigen frequently associated with severe disease [2, 3].
Approximately 1% of pregnant women have red cell alloantibodies that are implicated in HDFN (3).
At least 8 different antigens of the 24-member Kell red-cell antigen system have been associated with HDFN. The most common of these are Kell (k, K1) and Cellano (k, K2).
Hence, assessing the immunological profile of Rh-D HDFN was undertaken in this study.
Since HDFN and other clinically significant hemolytic events associated with anti-D predominantly involve IgG (best detected with anti-globulin), identifying the phase to determine anti-D titers was not the focus of our study.
Consequently, HDFN remained a major cause of morbidity and mortality in these countries.
Since first coming to the US market in 1968, RhIG therapy has become a standard of care for the prevention of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) (2) and has been primarily responsible for the dramatic reduction in the mortality from this disease.