In the HFBR dissolved oxygen penetrated into the biofilm reactor by air diffusion .
Ammonia and TN concentrations decreased gradually through the sheets of HFBR as shown in (Figure 7).
Nitrification is also affected by number of stacked sheets and TPSA, in this study the 55 sheets stacked together in the HFBR reactor and 0.
HFBR reactor was operated for 300 days under four organic loading rates.
HFBR reactor is an effective, robust, low cost, and easily maintained system for achieving high standards of effluent quality which could be reuse for irrigation of wooden trees.
The novel HFBR technology could provide a suitable alternative, which can applied in rural areas and small communities for municipal wastewater treatment.