The top and bottom flanges of the HFRP I-girder included multiple layers of CFRP and GFRP," Nguyen, Zatar and Mutsuyoshi write.
Although the HFRP girders may have lower stiffness and strength as compared to conventional bridge girders, the authors say, they can be used with FRP grids/decks to form pedestrian bridges, as appears in the accompanying image.
The authors then studied the behavior of composite girders consisting of pultruded HFRP I-girders, and full length/segmental precast UHPFRC topping slabs.
, 2004; Lauver, 2002; Sanderson & Richards, 2010); however, the item "I have to care for family members after school" received no general agreement among the students.
This makes the HFRP design useful in severe corrosive environments or where lightweight rapid construction is required, say Nguyen, Mutsuyoshi and Zatar.
They studied the composite behavior of the HFRP I-beam and ultra-high performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) topping slab, noting "UHPFRC has high ductility in both tension and compression due to the crack-bridging effect of the high strength steel fibers included in UHPFRC.
It is expected that the new composite beam system will increase beam stiffness, prevent buckling and delamination in the HFRP compressive flange, and more effectively utilize the high tensile strength of CFRP in the HFRP tension flange," observe Nguyen, Mutsuyoshi and Zatar.