However, as the above case of the HGDP indicates, and we will see further below, involved Indigenous peoples' organizing can disrupt and destabilize these assemblages by challenging scientists' authority to represent Indigenous peoples.
Therefore, I have chosen not to address the extensive literature on HGDP in this article.
Using the 671 microsatellites, we inferred population structure for the Peruvian (n = 73), SAC (n = 14), and an expanded set of participants from the three HGDP Native American populations (Wang et al.
To determine the level of African and European admixture among the Native American participants, we used a supervised clustering approach in which African and European populations from the HGDP sample set were fixed as reference populations.
Nicknamed the Vampire Project, the HGDP caused uproar among indigenous rights activists during the mid-1990s.
The justification for the HGDP also caused great offence among indigenous communities.
In the second section, I turn to the now virtually defunct HGDP and consider how it was received by indigenous peoples and international organizations.
The fact that the HGDP would be plagued with controversy and opposition from indigenous groups came as something of a surprise to its original proponents.
It fails to make the observation that the HGDP is little more than a recent example of the colonialism and exploitation which has characterised the clash between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people for centuries.
It appears to me that a major point in any discussion about the HGDP or any such scientific research program involving Indigenous Australians must have, as its focus, the issue of `free and informed consent'.
Harry told a University of Manitoba Engineering class on Aboriginal People, Science and the Environment, that the HGDP
is "a new wave of colonialism at the molecular level.
Anthropologists and potential participants alike worry that far from undermining it as proponents contend, the HGDP
is likely to add fuel to popular notions of "race" and genetically determined difference, simply shifting the folk concept from phenotype to genotype.