The graduation marks students' departure from HGIS
, but also marks the beginning of a new chapter in their lives, as some go on to University, College, or entrepreneurships.
HGIS is used to study the implications of racial issues at early Fort Victoria on Vancouver Island in a chapter by John Lutz, Patrick Dunae, Jason Gilliland, Don Lafreniere, and Megan Harvey.
An historic Mohawk land dispute is chronicled and examined from an HGIS perspective by Daniel Rueck, who examines historic and modern maps through the lens of historic narratives in order to show how historic events and cultures can be "encoded" into the modern landscape.
(6) As historian Richard White says, HGIS "allows the orientation and coordination of dissimilar things--an aerial photograph and a map, for example--in terms of a single location;" (7) David Bodenhamer, another historian in the vanguard of this scholarly field, observes that a GIS can integrate an extensive array of data from different formats, including artifacts, "all by virtue of their shared geography." (8) HGIS is thus a powerful research tool that can "layer divergent source materials and tie them to specific locations in space." (9) But GIS is more than a means of handling diverse spatially referenced material.
With the aid of our HGIS, we can place these wageworkers in their habitations and explore their urban environment for the first time.
Environmental modeling, which brings together land-use data and GIS, is yet another developing HGIS
The HGIS is based on a blend of The Hypermasculinity Inventory (HMI; Mosher & Sirkin, 1984) and The Hyperfemininity Scale (HFS, Murnen & Byrne, 1991).
Reliability for the HGIS was calculated using a sample of 297 participants (150 men, 147 women) resulting in a coefficient alpha of .96 (.94 for the men and .92 for the women).
This study makes a novel contribution to the growing body of urban historical scholarship using historical geographic information systems (HGIS) in Canada, (6) particularly what calls for a deeper understanding of spatial-temporal patterns and experiences of individuals in the past.
In an early application of HGIS, Gilliland showed that most household moves in late nineteenth-century Montreal were over short distances, within neighbourhoods rather than between neighbourhoods, and household expansion and the need to be close to employment opportunities both played major roles in decisions to relocate.