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In the conventional samples, DEP was positively correlated with several fragrance compounds (AHTN, benzyl acetate, bucinal, hexyl cinnemal, HHCB, linalool, limonene, and methyl ionone; [tau] = 0.34-0.56), which supports the idea that DEP is a common carrier for fragrances.
AHTN and HHCB show weak estrogic--but no uterotrophic activity.
The average concentration of HHCB was five times higher than that measured in European breast milk samples 10 years ago, and the average AHTN concentration was twice that detected in another European study in 1999.
Musk ingredients often are not listed on product labels, or they are called simply "fragrance" or by the trade names galaxolide (for HHCB) or tonalide (for AHTN).
"We find them everywhere," she says, "and their concentration is proportional to the population of the area where samples are collected." Concentrations of HHCB in Lake Erie doubled between 1990 and 1998, Hornbuckle reported in the 15 September 2006 issue of Environmental Science & Technology.
Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers Concerning Hexahydro-Hexamethyl-Cyclopenta ([gamma])-2-Benzopyran (HHCB).
IC10) Lowest NOEC (mg/L) (mg/L MK 0.14 mmol = 0.041 0.063 MX 0.09 mmol = 0.027 0.056 AHTN 0.35 mmol = 0.090 0.035 HHCB 0.37 mmol = 0.095 0.068 Abbreviations: MK, musk ketone; MX, musk xylene.
Musk ketone (MK), MX, HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8, 8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta-[gamma]--benzopyran), and Celestolide (ADBI; 4-acetyl-1, 1-dimethyl-6-tert-butylindane) were gifts from International Flavors & Fragrances Inc.
We tested treatments containing a) a nitromusk mixture (MX and MK), b) a polycyclic musk mixture (HHCB and ADBI), and c) a nitromusk/ polycyclic musk mixture (MX and HHCB).
The differences between treatments versus controls were significant for MX, HHCB, and ATII (p < 0.05, paired t-test), and there were clear trends of increased rhodamine levels also for MK, ADBI, and AHTN, indicating an inhibitor-related effect after 24 hr (Figure 4).
Environmental risk assessment for the polycyclic musks, AHTN and HHCB. II.
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