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HIV-2Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2
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To determine whether HIV- and SIV-like RNA could be detected in the 70 WB-indeterminate specimens, we attempted reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV.
HIV-2 is not frequently found, especially in the U.S.
HIV-2 infection is "nature's experiment" with a milder form of HIV disease, says Zvi Grossman of Tel-Aviv University in Israel, who's teamed up with Ana Sousa of the University of Lisbon Medical Center to study the role of immune activation in AIDS.
Which countries have a high prevalence * of HIV-2 infection?
The test can distinguish acute HIV-1 infection from established HIV-1 infection when the blood specimen is positive for HIV-1 p24 antigen but negative for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies.
Testing at CDC indicated the specimen was positive by HIV-1 EIA, HIV-1 WB, HIV-2 EIA, and HIV-2 WB for research use only (RUO).
To examine the potential for HIV-2 infection in blood supplies, the ARCBS and the NYBC tested stored frozen serum (collected from January 1987 to December 1989) that had previously tested repeatedly reactive by the HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (serum from persons with HIV-2 infection often cross-reacts with HIV-1 EIA [1,2]).
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for HIV-1 antibody and an HIV-1 Western blot (WB) assay were both negative, but an HIV-2--specific EIA and an HIV-2--specific WB were positive for HIV-2 antibody.
Now, in a report that offers a glimmer of hope for an AIDS vaccine, researchers argue that the immune response triggered by infection with HIV-2 can shield against a later attack by the more virulent HIV-1.
Levy, Barnett, and their colleagues turned to HIV-2, a type of HIV first discovered in West Africa.
A new report confirms the milder nature of HIV-2, a close cousin of HIV-1.
Corey's group tested whether HIV-1 could infect pigtail macaques after finding that the monkeys are especially vulnerable to HIV-2, a related but separate virus responsible for many AIDS cases in Africa.