The VHE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly diminished the HLTE incidence when compared to the control group (P=0.034, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively) and these effects were significantly lower than those of diazepam (P<0.001) (figure 2A).
All 3 concentrations of the EAF (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) significantly reduced the HLTE incidence in comparison with the control group (P=0.038, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively) (figure 2B).
As is illustrated in figure 2C, all 3 concentrations of the NBF (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) made a significant attenuation in the HLTE incidence induced by MES when compared to the control group (P<0.001).
The results revealed that the VHE ameliorated seizure induced by PTZ and MES by the prolongation of the latency to the first GTCs and decrement in the incidence of HLTE.
(21) According to our results, diazepam (5 mg/kg) significantly increased latency to the first GTCs induced by PTZ and decreased the incidence of HLTE induced following MES, when compared to the control group.
Nevertheless, all 3 concentrations of the VHE significantly diminished the incidence of HLTE induced by MES.
The present study showed that the VHE and its fractions, namely the EAF and the NBF, possessed anticonvulsant effects through the prolongation of latency to the first GTCs induced by PTZ and decrement in the incidence of HLTE induced by MES.