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Table 1: Projected System Notations System notation Description LMA New Mobolity Access Gateway P_MAG Previous Mobility Access Gateway BCE Binding Cache Entry u-BCE Update BCE [TD.sub.MN-AP] Transmission delay between the MN and Access Point [TD.sub.AP-MAG] Transmission delay between the Access Point and MAG [TD.sub.MAG-LMA] Transmission delay between MAG and LMA [TD.sub.MAG] Transmission delay between any two MAGs [TD.sub.MN-MAG] Transmission delay between the MN and MAG [TD.sub.DP] Transmission delay of the data packet from source to destination Table 2: Assessment amongst dissimilar IP mobility protocols Protocol MIPv6 KM IPv6 HMIPv6 Criteria Mobility Scope Global Local Local/ Global Location Yes Yes No management Home Required Home Agent Home Agent.
Through a performance evaluation, we show that our scheme provides a mechanism that is more robust than those of the other schemes such as eFMIPv6 , FMIPv6, HMIPv6, the hybrid algorithm  and Handoff Protocol for Integrated Networks (HPINs)  for which the MIMO routing protocol (MIR)  of mobile-video-streaming services is considered.
This led to the creation of extended versions of MIPv6, namely HMIPv6 by H.Soliman and FMIPv6 by R.Koodli.
A hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) is proposed by Castelluccia  as a way to mitigate the signaling overhead that is caused by the binding update processes.
After simulating AX-FPMIPv6 performances, it compares with LE-HMIPv6 system, Simple NEMO system, LLH system and HMIPv6 system.
Even with HMIPv6, the remote HA signaling problem  still remains unsolved.
Some literatures introduce analytical comparison between MIPv6, FMIPv6, HMIPv6, and a combination of FMIPv6 and HMIPv6 [16, 17].
HMIPv6 basically separates the local mobility from global.
In this approach the handover operation was similar to the handover operation of HMIPv6 and required no modifications resulting in, easy internetworking.
Even though Hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6)  and Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6)  are proposed for the location management, handover latency enhancement, they still have limit of local mobility region.
* There have been several extensions to MIPv6 (Fast Handovers for MIPv6 (FMIPv6) , Hierarchical MIPv6 Mobility Management (HMIPv6) , Optimizing MIPv6 (OMIPv6)), but there is no architecture that holds these extensions together.
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