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The amplifier was based on a 1 km long HNLF the parameters of which are displayed in Table I.
The same pump power as for the FOPA was used also for the LRA in order to find the shortest length of the HNLF that was capable of ensuing BER below the 10-12 threshold.
Edfa: erbium-doped fiber amplifier Highly Non linear fiber(HNLF) [gamma] 12.5 [w.sup.-1] [km.sup.-1] [D.sub.1] -0.71 ps/(nm.km) [D.sub.2] 2.09 ps/(nm.km) [S.sub.1] 0.0074 ps/([nm.sup.2].km) [S.sub.2] 0.002 ps/([nm.sup.2].km) [A.sub.eff] 6.3933 [micro]m Insertion losses [BPF.sub.1] 8 dBm [BPF.sub.2] 5.5 dBm EDFA [P.sub.sat] 15 dBm Table I:Output Powers For Various Bpf [BPF.sub.1] [BPF.sub.2] OUTPUT POWER OUTPUT POWER B/W in nm B/W in nm Max in dB Min in dB 6 5 -40.9815 -102.81 0.2 1.5 -47.7304 -102.48 2.5 3.5 -42.4711 -102.73 4 6 -40.4233 -102.83 7 12 -41.7679 -102.77
This setup is composed of two HNLFs of length L = 1007 m, two adjustable and tunable BPFs, centered at the wavelengths [[lambda].sub.1,2], and with tunable 3 dB bandwidths [[OMEGA].sub.1,2], respectively.
Mehrany, "Sensitive and Accurate Dispersion Map Extraction of HNLFs by Frequency Tuning of a Degenerate FWM," Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol.
So far, a variety of all-optical multicasting technologies has been demonstrated, such as using cross-gain modulation (XGM) , cross-phase modulation (XPM) , four-wave mixing (FWM) , and nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR)  in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), cross-absorption modulation (XAM)  in electro-absorption modulators (EAMs), cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide [10, 11], FWM in conventional dispersion-shifted highly nonlinear optical fibers (HNLFs) [12-14] or dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (DF-HNL-PCF) , and transient cross-phase modulation in DF-HNL-PCF .
The length of the fiber introduced in the designs is of three types, dispersion shifted fiber (DSF), high nonlinear fiber dispersion shifted fiber (HNLF-DSF), and high nonlinear fiber (HNLF).
The radiation of both pumps and of the input signal is combined and sent through a 800 meter long HNLF with 1553.35 nm zero dispersion wavelength (193 THz).
dBm and that the attenuation of the 1 km long HNLF fiber was 0.96 dB, it was found that when the signal and the pump were co-polarized FOPA produced gain reached 18.3 dB, but when the SOP of the signal and of the pump were placed orthogonally--only 1.6 dB.
At the output of the FOPA the amplified signal passes through a 5 nm bandpass optical filter with center frequency of 196.78 THz, in order to suppress the pumping radiation and the idler spectral components that were produced in the HNLF during the process of amplification.
It is necessary to note that HNLF caused 0.793 dB attenuation, which hasn't been taken into account during intensity equalization of signal before and after amplification, because it also represents the impact of the amplifier on the transmitted signal.
All the pump and HNLF parameters are chosen so that to maximize amplification of the DWDM signal while keeping the gain curve flat.
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