HNOPHead and Neck Oncology Program (Dana Farber Cancer Institute)
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direct comparisons of actual prices with (HNOP + NOM) figures will rarely be practicable because of the difficulty of calculating both the HNOPs and the NOMs;
interregional and intertemporal comparisons are somewhat more practicable because it is easier to estimate acceptably accurately the relevant HNOP and NOM differences (i.e., differences in the magnitudes of the determinants of the relevant HNOP and NOM figures) than the relevant absolute HNOP and NOM figures (the absolute magnitudes of those determinants);
Just as oligopolistic prices are prices above a relevant seller's HNOP, predatory prices are prices below a seller's HNOP.
the factors that affect the mechanical and law-related cost of the seller's communicating the necessary anticompetitive threats and/or offers to its potential undercutters--inter alia, its reputations for estimating its HNOPs and NOMs accurately and for practicing contrived oligopolistic pricing (which affect its ability to communicate the required anticompetitive offers and/or threats cheaply, simply by charging a contrived oligopolistic price),
Sherman Act) or arranging for the relevant set of rivals to announce their prices in an order that would raise the prices in the set of their across-the-board HNOPs (and make related decisions that increase the cost they would have to incur to charge prices that deviate from their announced prices)--viz., to induce sellers that are second-placed far more often than they are best-placed to announce their prices and lock themselves into their announced prices early in the price-announcement sequence.
(14) CM[C.sub.#1] [equivalent to] the contextual marginal costs the best-placed seller would have to incur to supply the relevant buyer at his HNOP.
(16) OM[C.sub.#1] [equivalent to] M[C.sub.#1]+CM[C.sub.#1] [equivalent to] the best-placed seller's overall marginal cost if he charges the relevant buyer his HNOP.
(18) CM[C.sub.#2] [equivalent to] the contextual marginal costs the second-placed seller would have to incur to match or infinitesimally beat the bestplaced seller's HNOP offer.
(19) OM[C.sub.#2] [equivalent to] M[C.sub.#2]+CM[C.sub.#2] [equivalent to] M[C.sub.#1]+MC[A.sub.#1]+CM[C.sub.#2] [equivalent to] the overall marginal costs the second-placed seller would have to incur to match or infinitesimally beat the best-placed seller's HNOP offer.