HNP1Human Neutrophil Peptide 1
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Hence, it is possible for the FLMA to transmit the flow-1 that uses HNP1, from FCMR to FNMR without deviation.
Although neutrophils are not prominently represented in HIV-mediated gastroentropathy, HNP1 had been recently shown to reduce tight junction expression in intestinal epithelial cells and promote HIV traversal, adding to the complexity of HNPs' role in the HIV infection process [48].
Unlike HNP1, HD5 does not disrupt the intestinal epithelial cell barrier [48], and intestinal PCs constitutively secrete HD5 and 6 to protect the host against invading pathogens and to maintain commensal microbial communities [49-51].
A recent study demonstrated that HNP1, which retains antimicrobial activity when released from apoptotic neutrophils, inhibits, after uptake, mRNA translation in macrophages and reduces inflammatory exudate formation in vitro [66, 67].
Like HNP1 and HBD2, RTD1 downmodulates CXCR4 and inhibits the entry of CXCR4 tropic HIV-1.
Chang, "Human alpha-defensin HNP1 increases HIV traversal of the epithelial barrier: a potential role in STI-mediated enhancement of HIV transmission," Viral Immunology, vol.
The actions of the best-described human defensins with antiretroviral activity, human neutrophil peptide 1 (HNP1) and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD2) (left side) are contrasted to the actions of rhesus theta defensin 1 (RTD1) (right side) leading to the proposed differential immune response and outcome of the retrovirus infection.