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We developed and refined the HNR typology, and a scale to assess it, in three subsequent studies (see Figure 2).
Qualitative interviews served to explore the relevance of the HNR idea and the range of variations in HNR types.
Being aware of possible biases, due to the desire to exhibit internal consistency between values, HNR and behaviour, we situated the behaviour module prior to the HNR and value modules.
HNR narratives: Respondents were asked to judge the extent to which each of the seven HNR narratives applied to them, using a scale from 'does not apply' to 'fully applies'.
As the PVQ uses the third-person to ask (indirectly) for a judgment about others, we converted the HNR items to the third-person as well.
HNR single statements: We again assessed respondents' HNR, but this time by separating the single statements of the narratives and arranging them in mixed order.
This section presents outcomes of the HNR scale development, and summarises the main results of the quantitative student surveys (Study 3).
For the basis of the investigation, we screened numerous journal articles and book chapters, and synthesised empirically-grounded typologies of HNR: in particular, the HaN Scale of de Groot and van den Born (2007) and the philosophical discourses of Zweers (2000).
Reflecting on the wording turned out to be the most crucial part of developing the HNR scale.
As Figure 3 illustrates, students in Austria (BOKU) and Utah (USU) associated themselves with HNR types of Steward, Partner, Participant and User, and less with types of Apathy, Master and Nature Distant Guardian.
Figure 4, however, shows respondents indicating five on the five-point Likert Scale for each of the HNR types; the respective line indicates the average score on the other types.
We also tested the trade-offs between assessing HNR by narratives or by single statements.
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