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HOPGHighly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite
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AFM and scanning tunneling microscope imaging of HOPG goes back to the early days of the instruments.
Looking at HOPG under an STM is "like looking at a marble floor in a bathroom: You can see anything you want to in it," Lindsay notes.
For this large-scale analyzer crystals of HOPG (Highly Oriented Graphite Pyrolitic) are required.
Topological properties of these non-trivial materials can be drastically modified by introducing defects or interfaces into them, like single layer graphene into superfluid helium, boron nitride between graphene sheets, carbon nanotubes in 3He superfluid, or misfit dislocation layers into HOPG graphite.