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To consider the influence of antenna beam widths on the range of mode orthogonality, simulated SNRs for narrow beam width antennas (HPBW 10[degrees]) are given in Figure 8.
Design parameters FA PSO Pencil Pencil Pencil Pencil beam 1 beam 2 beam 1 beam 2 SLL Desired -24.0000 -28.0000 -24.000 -28.0000 (dB) Obtained -22.7574 -24.4177 -21.7951 -23.5566 HPBW Desired 5.0000 7.0000 5.0000 7.0000 (degree) Obtained 6.0000 6.2000 5.8000 6.0000 FNBW Desired 12.0000 16.0000 12.0000 16.0000 (degree) Obtained 14.8000 16.4000 14.4000 15.6000 Table 3.
In fact, the angular separation between the two DOAs is equal to 15[degrees], i.e., this value is greater than the value HPBW (Half Power Beam Width) that is for a linear array of 10 sensors about 10[degrees] .
The array antenna has a maximum gain of 3.95 dBi in the direction of 344[degrees] with an HPBW of 62.1[degrees].
The dual-polarized antenna achieves a HPBW of 65 [+ or -] 8[degrees] for both VP and HP elements, a bandwidth of about 48% (1.7-2.75 GHz) for RL > 15 dB, and an isolation of 30 dB.
An alternative way to process is to reduce the 3 dB HPBW.
To study the effects of the shape of the platform on the beamwidth, we analyze the relationship between the half power beamwidth (HPBW), peak gain, and half-angle [[theta].sub.c] of cone, as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 5(b) shows the main lobe steering towards the 270[degrees] direction with a peak directivity of 6.5 dBi and a half-power beamwidth (HPBW) of 86.3[degrees] when RF switch (ii) is activated.
LHCP RHCP +45 -45 Gain 17.817 17.191 17.784 17.863 HPBW 66.525 67.78 67.032 66.784 Front-to-back ratio 31.773 27.836 29.258 29.804 Azimuth beam squint -0.51985 0.51779 -0.018224 0.3826 Cross polar ratio-0 28.684 40.389 30.067 35.675 Cross polar ratio-60 14.077 11.241 10.484 12.035 Figure 9: Test result of MIMO diversity improvement using circular polarized antenna.
The effect of the beam direction on the HPBW and the gain was studied in detail.
In the second mode M2, when onlyone dipole and its director are enabled, a unique directive beam can be radiated in x- or -x-directions with a half-power beamwidth (HPBW) of 48[degrees] and a measured peak gain of 8.12 dBi.
HPBW (Half Power Beamwidth) of a single element was about 82.5[degrees] and measured gain was 6.7dBi at resonant frequency.
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