A joint analysis showed low h2a for all studied traits, which ranged from 1% to 3% for HPBW
, HPAW, BN, HPD, and HPL (Table 2).
Limited by the HPBW
of the vertical beam, if a user lies near the center directions of vertical beams, this user would receive higher signal power, otherwise it's received signal power is lower.
2] = -15[degrees] in Figures 7(a)(b) and so the angular distance between the two considered DOAs is such to be bigger of HPBW
The main beam has to point to 90[degrees] with a HPBW
Correspondingly, the HPBW
in the horizontal plane decreases by 7.
Second, the range of the intensity in HPBW
The proposed switched-beam antenna consists of eight identical directional microstrip array antennas each one providing a radiation pattern with a HPBW
of nearly 60 degrees and a gain of nearly 7 dBi in the main lobe direction, and a vertical half-wavelength dipole antenna with an omnidirectional pattern.
Although further decrease in inter-element distance would produce an even lower grating lobe level, it would create beams with extremely high HPBW
and low gain/directivity.
Switch Resonant Gain HPBW
Side Efficiency Mode Frequency (dB) ([degrees]) Lobe (%) (GHz) Level (dB) ON 2.
This higher cost is due mainly to the fact that a typical MBPA with a 1[degrees] HPBW
and a [plus or minus]60[degrees] scan coverage requires approximately ten thousand radiating elements.
FNBW and HPBW
of the main beam of fundamental pattern are compared with that of the Dolph-Chebyshev (D-C) pattern of same SLL.
Type of Switch Number of PIN diode status PIN diode switch Reconfigurable A ON OFF RF PIN diode B OFF ON switches C OFF OFF D OFF OFF Simulated Angle of Steering +179[degrees] +14[degrees] Beam Measured Angle of Steering +176[degrees] +10[degrees] Beam Measured HPBW
([degrees]) 65[degrees] 60[degrees] (195[degrees]- (340[degrees]- 130[degrees]) 40[degrees]) Measured Gain (dBi) 2.