All samples were tested with Infiniti RVP plus assay on Infiniti Plus analyzer which identifies the following respiratory viruses: Influenza A virus (FluA), Influenza B virus (FluB), Influenza A-Swine H1N1 virus, hPIV
(1,2,3, and 4), hRV (A and B), EV (A , B , C, and D), hCoV (HKU1 , OC43 , NL63, and 229E), hMPV (A and B), hRSV (A and B), and hAdv (A, B, C, and D) with 90% sensitivity and 100 specificity according to manufacturer (AutoGenomics, USA).
Out of these 25,773 specimens collected from patients with ARIs and tested for respiratory viruses, 1675 (6.50%, 1675/25,773) showed HPIV
positive, including 261 (1.01%, 261/25,773) positive for HPIV1, 28 (0.11%, 28/25,773) for HPIV2, and 1388 (5.39%, 1388/25,773) for HPIV3.
We extended the investigation to additional viruses, including human bocavirus, human cytomegalovirus, coronaviruses, human parechoviruses, and HPIV
, and showed a high frequency of HCoV-E229 infection in pilgrims returning from the Hajj.
The company said Lyra Parainfluenza Assay is a real-time PCR test for the qualitative detection and identification of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV
) infections for virus types 1, 2, or 3 viral RNA extracted from nasal swab and nasopharyngeal swab specimens.
Samples were then stored on ice and sent to the Adolfo Lutz institute for Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF), performed using a panel of five monoclonal antibodies specific for HRSV, Influenza A and B, HPIV
1, 2 and 3, and Adenovirus, for the detection of seven viruses (Kit Light Diagnostic TM, Chemicon International Inc, Temecula, USA).
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs
) (family Paramyxoviridae) are major causes of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and elderly persons.
Specimens were tested for the presence of FLUAV and FLUBV, (16) HRSV (variant A and B), (17) HPIV
species 1-4, (18) HRV species A and B (HRV-A/B), (19) HMPV, (20) HAdV, (21) HBoV species 1-4, (22,23) WUPyV and KIPyV, (24) and HCoV species OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU125 by real time PCR assays.
PCR results for RNA viruses in 15-year-old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and astrovirus encephalitis * Sample Coronavirus Enterovirus HMPV HPIV
1 to 4 Cerebrospinal ND Neg Neg ND fluid Brain Neg Neg Neg Neg Influenza virus Sample HSV 1 or 2 ([dagger]) Rhinovirus RSV VZV WNV Cerebrospinal Neg ND ND ND Neg ND fluid Brain Neg Neg Neg Neg Neg Neg * HMPV, human metapneumovirus; HPIV
, human parainfluenza virus; HSV, herpes simplex virus; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; VZV, varicella zoster virus; WNV, West Nile virus; ND, not done; neg, negative.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV
) are genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4 .
HPIV-4 was the most frequent HPIV
with 9 isolates, representing 43% of all HPIVs
and 2.4% of all positive cultures.
A copathogen was found in 5 (20.8%) of 24 HPeV-infected patients, including 3 patients with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), 1 with adenovirus, and 1 with human parainfluenza virus (HPIV
) type 3.
The sensitivity of Mass Tag PCR to detect live virus was tested by using RNA extracted from serial dilutions of titered stocks of coronaviruses (severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS] and OC43) and parainfluenzaviruses (HPIV
2 and 3).