HPIVHolographic Particle Image Velocimetry
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50%, 1675/25,773) showed HPIV positive, including 261 (1.
No HPIV was detected from patients with the diagnosis of unexplained fever.
This prospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HPIVs in children hospitalized for ARTI, assess the clinical characteristics of HPIV+ and HRSV+ patients, and to compare the two groups identifying any specific features of infections caused by HPIVs.
Samples were then stored on ice and sent to the Adolfo Lutz institute for Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF), performed using a panel of five monoclonal antibodies specific for HRSV, Influenza A and B, HPIV 1, 2 and 3, and Adenovirus, for the detection of seven viruses (Kit Light Diagnostic TM, Chemicon International Inc, Temecula, USA).
We extended the investigation to additional viruses, including human bocavirus, human cytomegalovirus, coronaviruses, human parechoviruses, and HPIV, and showed a high frequency of HCoV-E229 infection in pilgrims returning from the Hajj.
HPIVs are second to respiratory syncytial virus as the cause of hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract infections (1,2) and account for 6.
Infected cell cultures were used as positive controls for HRSV (HEp-2 cells), HPIV (Vero cells), HMPV (LLC-MK2 cells), HRV (MRC-5 cells) and HAdV (A549 cells).
FLUVB, HAdV, HPIV, HRSV, HMPV, and HCoV were less frequently detected.
The purposes of the study were: (1) To determine the rate of HPIV infections among children attended at the Albert Sabin Children's Hospital (HIAS) over six consecutive years; (2) To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of these infections; (3) To show the seasonal pattern of HPIV infections and its relation with the rainy season and with periods of activity of other respiratory viruses; and (4) To compare the clinical characteristics of parainfluenza infections with infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza and adenovirus.
Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the study population and of children infected by HPIV are showed in the Table 1.
Using viral cultures, we found that HPIV-4 accounted for 43% of all HPIVs isolated in our laboratory during the 2004-05 fall and winter seasons.