HPIVHolographic Particle Image Velocimetry
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All samples were tested with Infiniti RVP plus assay on Infiniti Plus analyzer which identifies the following respiratory viruses: Influenza A virus (FluA), Influenza B virus (FluB), Influenza A-Swine H1N1 virus, hPIV (1,2,3, and 4), hRV (A and B), EV (A , B , C, and D), hCoV (HKU1 , OC43 , NL63, and 229E), hMPV (A and B), hRSV (A and B), and hAdv (A, B, C, and D) with 90% sensitivity and 100 specificity according to manufacturer (AutoGenomics, USA).
Out of these 25,773 specimens collected from patients with ARIs and tested for respiratory viruses, 1675 (6.50%, 1675/25,773) showed HPIV positive, including 261 (1.01%, 261/25,773) positive for HPIV1, 28 (0.11%, 28/25,773) for HPIV2, and 1388 (5.39%, 1388/25,773) for HPIV3.
We extended the investigation to additional viruses, including human bocavirus, human cytomegalovirus, coronaviruses, human parechoviruses, and HPIV, and showed a high frequency of HCoV-E229 infection in pilgrims returning from the Hajj.
The company said Lyra Parainfluenza Assay is a real-time PCR test for the qualitative detection and identification of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infections for virus types 1, 2, or 3 viral RNA extracted from nasal swab and nasopharyngeal swab specimens.
Samples were then stored on ice and sent to the Adolfo Lutz institute for Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF), performed using a panel of five monoclonal antibodies specific for HRSV, Influenza A and B, HPIV 1, 2 and 3, and Adenovirus, for the detection of seven viruses (Kit Light Diagnostic TM, Chemicon International Inc, Temecula, USA).
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) (family Paramyxoviridae) are major causes of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and elderly persons.
Specimens were tested for the presence of FLUAV and FLUBV, (16) HRSV (variant A and B), (17) HPIV species 1-4, (18) HRV species A and B (HRV-A/B), (19) HMPV, (20) HAdV, (21) HBoV species 1-4, (22,23) WUPyV and KIPyV, (24) and HCoV species OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU125 by real time PCR assays.
PCR results for RNA viruses in 15-year-old boy with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and astrovirus encephalitis * Sample Coronavirus Enterovirus HMPV HPIV 1 to 4 Cerebrospinal ND Neg Neg ND fluid Brain Neg Neg Neg Neg Influenza virus Sample HSV 1 or 2 ([dagger]) Rhinovirus RSV VZV WNV Cerebrospinal Neg ND ND ND Neg ND fluid Brain Neg Neg Neg Neg Neg Neg * HMPV, human metapneumovirus; HPIV, human parainfluenza virus; HSV, herpes simplex virus; RSV, respiratory syncytial virus; VZV, varicella zoster virus; WNV, West Nile virus; ND, not done; neg, negative.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) are genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4 [1].
HPIV-4 was the most frequent HPIV with 9 isolates, representing 43% of all HPIVs and 2.4% of all positive cultures.
A copathogen was found in 5 (20.8%) of 24 HPeV-infected patients, including 3 patients with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), 1 with adenovirus, and 1 with human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) type 3.
The sensitivity of Mass Tag PCR to detect live virus was tested by using RNA extracted from serial dilutions of titered stocks of coronaviruses (severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS] and OC43) and parainfluenzaviruses (HPIV 2 and 3).