Advice on various aspects of HPTE
's Express Lanes Program, including multi-corridor tolling strategies
The commercially available pure active metabolites of methoxychlor and flutamide (HPTE
and 2-hydroxyflutamide, respectively) were also tested in parallel to both compare the difference observed between the pure metabolite and the metabolite mixture generated by the S9, as well as to investigate whether the known active metabolite is itself a substrate for further metabolism.
mangostana leaves and stem-bark LWE at 36 hpte
are presented in Table 1.
After starving cells overnight, cells were treated with vehicle (control), 10-8 M E2 (for mER[beta]1), 10-7 M E2 (for mER[beta]2) or 10-6 M DPN, BPA, HPTE
or Gen for 18 hr.
[E.sub.2] (CAS number 50-28-2, purity 98%), BP-2 (CAS number 131-55-5, purity 97%), [alpha]-ZA (CAS number 247-769-0, purity 97%), 4-OP (CAS number 140-66-9, purity 97%), HPTE
(CAS number 2971-36-0, purity 98), BPA (CAS number 80-05-7, purity 99%), BPC (CAS number 14868-03-2, purity 99%), DDE (CAS number 72-55-9, purity 99%), butylparaben (CAS number 94-26-8, purity 99%), chlordecone (CAS number 143-50-0, purity 99%), and BBP (CAS number 85-68-7, purity 98%) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint-Quentin-Fallavier, France).
), an estrogenic metabolite of the pesticide methoxychlor, has estrogenic effects similar to that of BPA (Borgeest et al.
Endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 2,2-bis(p-hydroxy-phenyl)-1,1,1 -trichloroethane (HPTE
), are considered "weak estrogens," exhibiting early-phase estrogenic responses in the uterus, but late responses are diminished after 24 hr (Hewitt and Korach 2011).
Of the 20 chemicals with hits in both CIS and TRANS ER after filtering, 9 are listed as Positive by ICCVAM/NICEATM; 1 is a Presumed Positive; 1 (HPTE
) is an active metabolite of a positive (Methoxychlor) and 2 are known to break down to a "Positive" (the nonylphenol ethoxylates Igepal and Tergitol break down to nonylphenols).