Although various papers have demonstrated the protective role of HQH in proteinuria and glomerular-related diseases, these mechanisms are still unclear.
In this study, we cultured podocytes in vitro, induced the proteinuria model using tunicamycin (TM), and analyzed the potential effects of HQH on the biological processes of [MPC.sub.5] podocytes.
For HQH treatment, MTT and LDH toxicity assays were used as previously described [23, 24], to determine the optimal concentration when applying HQH to [MPC.sub.5] cells.
The influence of HQH on the TM-induced [MPC.sub.5] cells was analyzed based on the MTT and LDH assays.
Effects of HQH on proteinuria-related protein expression
We further analyzed the influence of HQH on proteinuria-related protein expression, including the cytoskeletal proteins, adhesion molecules, and foot process-related proteins (Figure 3).
The possible mechanism of HQH in treating proteinuria
The effects of HQH on the protein expression related to p-ERK/CHOP signaling pathway were analyzed using Western blotting and qRT-PCR (Figure 4).
Numerous studies have demonstrated the pivotal protecting role of HQH in proteinuria and podocyte damage, but the mechanism still remains unclear.
We further detected the expression of proteins related to podocyte damage in the [MPC.sub.5] cells treated by HQH, Sun et al, proved that HQH promotes the nephrin and podocin protein expression in rat renal tissues with Adriamycin-induced nephrosis , In this study, the results showed that the HQH treatment promoted the cell proliferation, suppressed the cell apoptosis, and increased the expression of nephrin, podocin, and synaptopodin proteins (Figure 2 and 3), implying the protective role of HQH in the [MPC.sub.5] damage,
Although our study revealed the crucial protective roles of HQH in podocyte damage, several limitations remained, Firstly, further experimental studies should be conducted in the animal model of glomerular proteinuria by using adult rats.