Most encouraging are the efforts of some UN agencies who have been working for more than a decade to grow experiences of applying the HRBA
in all development sectors, including in WATSAN, and to define this methodology as a central orientation for all future development cooperation (34).
Yamin states, "A fundamental challenge to meaningfully using human rights is that the prevailing liberal narrative about rights as freedoms from state intrusion, which is deeply tied to the neoliberal organization of economies at national and global levels, continues to pervade much public discourse as well as practice." (15) She adds it is crucial to develop empowering HRBAs to health that can challenge "the sophistry that underlies restricting the application of human rights norms to a thin slice of questions about civil and political freedoms, which fails to challenge the distribution of resources in society." (15)
This marginalizes the use of HRBAs in policies and practice, and reduces their potential to reduce inequities within and between countries.
Therefore, concepts like "sustainable security," "sustainable development," and "HRBA" have become crucial in the examination of both opportunities as well as threats to security in order to offer implications for possible agenda of action, including interconnected frameworks, coalitions for change, interlocking institutional arrangements and disaggregated goals and indicators (Khagram et al., 2003).
It follows that the embracement of new concepts, discourses and approaches such as "the HS framework" (supported by the method of the assessment of pervasive threats and insecurity), "sustainable security," "sustainable development," and "a HRBA to development" has challenged existing core values and principles in each policy frame.
(16) In a more concrete manner, the concept of HRBA to development (including the fight against poverty) is contained in five legal principles, namely: 1) application of the international human rights framework; 2) empowerment of rights holders; 3) participation in one's own development (as of right and not just as best practice); 4) non-discrimination and prioritization of vulnerable groups; as well as 5) accountability of duty-bearers to rights-holders (for process and impact).
In violence prevention, HRBA identifies at-risk populations as rights holders, while national authorities are recognized as duty bearers.
HRBA provides international standards and norms, fosters participation of vulnerable populations, identifies citizen entitlements and state obligations explicitly, and can improve capacity building and mobilization in national prevention programs and policies.
HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights qualifies the human rights-based approach (HRBA) as follows: "A Human Rights-Based Approach is a conceptual framework for the process of human development that is normatively based on international human rights standards and operationally directed to promoting and protecting human rights.
Gasper argues that HS offers solutions to some of HRBA's weaknesses: HRBA needs to understand the division of mandates and phased change, and human rights proponents need to prioritize and tailor suggestions to specific situations.
Building on this analysis the preventive framework presented below aims to join normative and value-based entries (represented by CJS, RJ/TJ, HRBA, and HS) and instrumental knowledge and evidence-based entries (moderately represented in CJS but mainly by PH).