HRELHistory of Religions (college course)
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Upper Necaxa Totonac (24) [ti: ste:kutunka ska:n swanikan] [ti: is--te:ku=tunka ska:n is--wan-ni--kan [O.sub.SO]] HREL 3POSS-owner=very water PAST-say-BEN--IDF __ 'the one that they call the spirit of the water himself In this example, the primary object, iste:ku ska:n 'the spirit of the water', precedes rather than follows the verb.
Upper Necaxa Totonac (25) ca:tin puska:t [ti: li:skamani:n iswi:l naiscik] ca:--tin puska:t [ti: li:--skamani:n is--wi:l [O.sub.SUB] nak=is--cik] CLF-one woman HREL INST-pauper PAST-sit __ LOC=3POSS- house 'a woman who lived in poverty in her house' ca:tin puska:t [ti: li:skamani:ntunka naiscik iswi:i] *ca:tin puska:t [ti: iswi:l li:;skamani.ntunka naiscik] As shown in (25), the manner adverb obligatorily precedes the verb, while the locative is permitted in either pre-verbal or post-verbal position.
Upper Necaxa Totonac (26) iklo:pala isco[??]kan lakstin [ti: taan nakskwela] ik--lawa--pala is--co[??]--kan lakstin [ti: ta-an [O.sub.SUB] 1SG.SUB-make-RPT 3POSS-tortilla-PL.PO children HREL 3PL.SUB-go __ nak=skwela] LOC=school 'I make food again for the children that go to school.' Here, the head of the relative clause lakstin 'children' is coreferential with the subject of the embedded verb, taan 'they go'.
Upper Necaxa Totonac (28) kala?tsi, [ti: natawilais'ata], naksa: nama:sa:ani:kan ka-la?tsi [ti: na-tawila is--s'ata] nak=sa: OPT-see:2SG.SUB:PFV HREL FUT-be.born 3POSS-child LOC=sweatlodge na-ma:--sa:--an-ni:--kan FUT-CAUS-sweatlodge-go-CAUS--IDF 'Look, a child that will be born, they will bathe it in the sweatlodge.' Relatives formed on copular clauses can also be internally-headed:
Upper Necaxa Totonac (29) ikla?apasa [ti: santi:l swani: puska:t] ik-la?apas-a [ti: santi:l is--wan-ni: puska:t] 1SG.SUB-recognize--IMPF HREL shaman PAST-be-PF woman 'I know a woman who was a shaman.' Not unexpectedly, then, it appears that all subjects are accessible to relativization.
Upper Necaxa Totonac (30) wis kalaksakti [ti: tsex la?ati:ya] wis ka-laksak-ti [ti: tsex la?ati:--ya [O.sub.PO]] you OPT-choose-2SG.SUB:PFV HREL well like-IMPF:2SG.SUB __ 'Pick the one (girl) that you like best!' (31) also shows a headless primary-object centred relative clause:
Upper Necaxa Totonac (40) ikputsa ca:tin tsumaxa:t [ti: axula: tse:wani ci wis] ik-putsa ca:--tin tsumaxa:t [ti: axula: tse:wani OSUB ci wis] 1SG.SUB-look.for CLF-one girl HREL more pretty __ like you 'I'm looking for a girl who is prettier than you.' 3.
Apapantilla Totonac (56) ciltsa wan cisku [anti: tama:wakutun kusi] cin--l=tsa wan cisku [anti: tama:wa-kutun kusi OSUB] arrive-PFV=now DET man HREL buy-DSD corn __ 'The man who wants to buy corn arrived.' (Reid 1991: 58) ciltsa wan cisku [anti: saiqah:ma:] (57) cin--l=tsa wan cisku [anti: sa--ik-qali:--ma: OOBJ] arrive-PFV=now DET man HREL PAST--1SG.SUB-wait-PROG __ 'The man who I am waiting for arrived.' (Reid 1991: 58) The example in (56) is subject-centred, while that in (57) is object-centred.
Apapantilla Totonac (58) anan anti: lex tatsutsunun anan [anti: lex ta-tsutsu--nun [O.sub.SUB]] exist HREL much 3PL.SUB-smoke--INDEF.OBJ __ 'There are many who smoke a lot.' (Reid et al., n.d.) ikpa:tsanqa:l [antu: kiwani] (59) ik-pa:tsanqa:--l [antu: kin-wan-ni OOBJ] 1SG.SUB-forget-PFV NREL 1OBJ-say-BEN __ 'I forgot what he told me.' (Reid 1991: 58) The relativizers here appear to be composed, at least etymologically, of ti:/tu: and what was historically a deictic element, *an (cf.
Apapantilla Totonac (62) ma:qosamisi:l wan puska:t anti: sputnil iskaman ma:qosamisi:--l wan puska:t [anti: sput-ni--1 is--kaman [O.sub.POSS]] console-PFV DET woman HREL finish-BEN-PFV 3POSS-child __ 'He consoled the woman whose child died.' (Reid et al., n.d.) So it would seem that Apapantilla resembles Upper Necaxa in covering most of the Accessibility Hierarchy.
Cerro Xinolatepetl Totonac (63) isyanan ca:tum taqo: [ti: steweni laqoces] is--yanan ca:--tum taqo: [ti:n is--ta-wan-ni laqucas [O.sub.OBJ]] PAST-arrive CLF-one old.woman HREL PAST-3PL.SUB-say-BEN Laqotsas __ 'There was an old woman they called "Laqotsas".' (Andersen 2012: 182, line 2) (64) [tu: isyal] lkuni:[t.sup.h]ca: [tu:n is--yan-li [O.sub.SUB]] lkuyu--ni:t=ca: NREL PAST-go-PFV __ burn-PF=now 'The one who came out burned up.' (Andersen 2012: 193, line 47) These examples are, respectively, subject- (64) and object-centred (63), and make use of ti:n and tu:n relativizers.
tfo [ti qama:nan [O.sub.SUB] i] baby PTCL HREL play:IMPF __ JNCT '...