Some of the youth adjustment problems, notably ATOD, delinquency, and HRSB, were in early stages of development for our participants.
Another intriguing finding of the present study was related to the significant associations among youth heritage culture orientation, youth Anglo orientation, youth acculturation score, and youth HRSB. Collectively, these associations suggested that stronger relative adherence to the heritage culture by Latin-American early adolescents may be linked to less engagement in early forms of HRSB.
Results may also be quite different for older Latin-American students engaging in more advanced forms of ATOD, HRSB, and delinquency.
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Further, use of each of these substances correlated significantly with HRSB, indicating high comorbidity between delinquency, substance use, and HRSB.
To examine these, we looked at the relationship between engagement in HRSB and peer relations and found a trend toward a negative relationship between girls' HRSB engagement at baseline and positive peer relationships at baseline (r = -.36, p = .06) and 12 months later (r = -.30, p < .05).
As can be seen there, early adverse experiences and events are hypothesized to relate directly to proximal outcomes (e.g., placement stability in foster care, behavior problems, school achievement, social support, affiliation with prosocial female peers, and relational aggression), which are hypothesized to relate to more severe longer-term outcomes (e.g., delinquency, association with deviant peers, school failure and truancy, HRSB, initiation of substance use, and poor mental and physical health).
The curriculum is designed to address prevention of participation in delinquency, HRSB, and substance use, and to present strategies for helping girls build friendships with prosocial peers and refrain from relational aggression.
Each girl identifies a set of short- and long-term goals and is asked to make a public commitment to avoid drugs and HRSB. Recent female college graduates who are experienced coaches conduct the Summer Pride sessions.
Specifically, the intervention group girls are expected to be more academically competent, to participate less in substance experimentation and use, to partake less in HRSB, to show less delinquency, to have fewer deviant peer associations, and to have better mental and physical health than the control group girls.