is an enveloped virus (genus Orthopneumovirus, family Pneumoviridae) .
All samples were tested with Infiniti RVP plus assay on Infiniti Plus analyzer which identifies the following respiratory viruses: Influenza A virus (FluA), Influenza B virus (FluB), Influenza A-Swine H1N1 virus, hPIV (1,2,3, and 4), hRV (A and B), EV (A , B , C, and D), hCoV (HKU1 , OC43 , NL63, and 229E), hMPV (A and B), hRSV
(A and B), and hAdv (A, B, C, and D) with 90% sensitivity and 100 specificity according to manufacturer (AutoGenomics, USA).
Previous studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and infections with various respiratory viruses, including HRSV
, HRV, HMPV, HPIV, HAdV, and FLUV.
Endeavours to develop an HRSV
vaccine have so far floundered owing to issues with no long term cure and potency.
Samples were then stored on ice and sent to the Adolfo Lutz institute for Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF), performed using a panel of five monoclonal antibodies specific for HRSV
, Influenza A and B, HPIV 1, 2 and 3, and Adenovirus, for the detection of seven viruses (Kit Light Diagnostic TM, Chemicon International Inc, Temecula, USA).
Specificity: specificity tests were performed from stocks of other RNA viruses, including, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV
Causative agents of respiratory disease in humans include human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV
), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), influenza A virus (FLUAV) and influenza B virus (FLUBV), human adenovirus (HAdV), human coronavirus (HCoV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human bocavirus (HBoV).
2, L698F: catcaccgacctgtccaagttyaaycargc 96.7, 99.5 ([paragraph]) target: ITDLSKFNQA nt 1962-2511 L894R: ttgaagtcgtccaggatggtrttdatcca (550 bp) target: WINTILDDFK % Identity to Region PCR primers (5' [right arrow] 3') HRSV
, nt, aa sequenced and aa target sequences in ([double ([dagger]) pneumoviruses dagger]) N gene, P1R: ggaactcgggggcgaayttytccat 68.5, 70.1 ([paragraph]) target: MEKFAPEFH nt 852-1182 N276F: tccgtgcaggccgaratggarcarg (331 bp) target: SVQAEMEQV L gene, no.
Seasonal influenza virus B (IBV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), adenovirus (AdV), human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV
) and human coronavirus (HCoV) detections were performed as previously described.
All pediatric (from case-patients and controls) and adult (case-patients only) NPA specimens were previously analyzed by using a multiplex real-time PCR assay for influenza A and B viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV
), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (24,25).
(5) After excluding influenza A infection (H1N1 2009 and seasonal influenza), the negative samples were tested for the presence of the following viruses as described previously: seasonal influenza virus B (IBV) with primers targeting the NS gene, (6) human rhinovirus (HRV) with primers targeting the 5'NCR and VP4/VP2 genes, (7) human metapneumovirus (hMPV) with primers targeting the fusion protein gene, (8) adenovirus (AdV) with primers targeting the hexon gene (9) and human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV
) with primers targeting the fusion protein gene.
These specimens were previously analyzed by using a multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for influenza A and B viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV
), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (8).