HRSVHuman Respiratory Syncytial Virus
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The HRSV was the most frequently detected viral agent (26.
The peak detection rate of the HRSV occurred in the autumn season during the study period.
Previous studies have demonstrated an association between asthma and infections with various respiratory viruses, including HRSV, HRV, HMPV, HPIV, HAdV, and FLUV.
Specimens were tested for the presence of FLUAV and FLUBV, (16) HRSV (variant A and B), (17) HPIV species 1-4, (18) HRV species A and B (HRV-A/B), (19) HMPV, (20) HAdV, (21) HBoV species 1-4, (22,23) WUPyV and KIPyV, (24) and HCoV species OC43, 229E, NL63, and HKU125 by real time PCR assays.
Infected cell cultures were used as positive controls for HRSV (HEp-2 cells), HPIV (Vero cells), HMPV (LLC-MK2 cells), HRV (MRC-5 cells) and HAdV (A549 cells).
The nine cases of multiple infections were: three seasonal IAV plus AdV, one seasonal IAV plus HRV, two H1N1 2009 plus HRSV, two H1N1 2009 plus hMPV, and one triple infection of seasonal IAV plus HRV plus AdV.
Three expecting mothers were among the H1N1 2009 positive patients and one of them had a coinfection with HRSV.
Other viruses were also detected in 10 (37%) of 27 HBoV-positive specimens; 5 specimens also contained HRSV, 4 had HMPV, and 1 had adenovirus.
HMPV might cause repeated infections throughout life, similar to HRSV, which could be either due to incomplete immunity or to genetic heterogeneity of the virus.
Case-patients were children admitted for an ARTI (mostly bronchiolitis, pneumonitis, and laryngotracheobronchitis) who had a nasopharyngeal aspirate collected as part of the investigation of their illness (in this hospital, collecting such samples is standard practice to assess the presence of HRSV in children).
Regression modeling associates excess winter deaths with influenza and HRSV but also suggests that other pathogens may be involved (3).
An NPA sample was obtained for viral culture and HRSV antigenic detection.