This Project was funded by MCHB HRTW Grant H01MC00020-04; writing was partially funded by MCHB Cooperative Agreement U39MC00047.
Blomquist, PhD, RN, is Consultant, HRTW National Center, HRTW Consultant, Kentucky Commission for Children with Special Health Care Needs, Lexington, KY.
The approval of the HRtWS in 2010 can be considered to be the fruit of a strong mobilisation led in large part by progressive social movements, and assisted by many States' committed to the development of human rights.
Albeit, for Bakker (17), the establishment of the HRtWS and the applications that it has seen these past few years show signs of a transition into a hybrid post neoliberal agenda.
Some (19) have expressed doubts about the effectiveness of rights talk to provide imaginative language for thinking about new community economies and thus deny that the UN's recognition of the HRtWS has led to a significant improvement in the conditions of people whose access to WSSs is limited.
Indeed, the UNGA's (1) and UNHRC's (2) resolutions on the HRtWS abstained from using firm economic language.
WASH United, WaterAid, TNI) have been intensely adopting a conception of the HRtWS that prioritises first and foremost the extension of WSSs to society's most vulnerable demographics (24).
In sum, the HRtWS remains a disputed concept that tends to be appropriated by different stakeholders in ways that correspond with their particular interests.
Since the respective UNGA (1) and UNHRC (2) resolutions in 2010, State Members have been encouraged to adopt the HRtWS in their national legislation (e.g.
Indeed, many States have long demonstrated unsustainable approaches to realizing the HRtWS. For instance, when confronted with inefficient or otherwise imperfect WSSs, instead of investing in maintenance and institutional reform, governments may choose to invest in system expansion, which in some cases may be unfavourable from an ecological point of view or contentious from a socio-political standpoint (22).
Indeed, the HRtWS must be considered together with the human right to a safe and healthy environment.
In the context of the SDGs' numerous timebased goals and the demand for rapid, measurable progress vis-a-vis the realisation of the HRtWS (among other human rights), critics have expressed doubt about the effectiveness of the recognition of these rights in this regard.