Some (19) have expressed doubts about the effectiveness of rights talk to provide imaginative language for thinking about new community economies and thus deny that the UN's recognition of the HRtWS has led to a significant improvement in the conditions of people whose access to WSSs is limited.
Indeed, the UNGA's (1) and UNHRC's (2) resolutions on the HRtWS abstained from using firm economic language.
WASH United, WaterAid, TNI) have been intensely adopting a conception of the HRtWS that prioritises first and foremost the extension of WSSs to society's most vulnerable demographics (24).
In sum, the HRtWS remains a disputed concept that tends to be appropriated by different stakeholders in ways that correspond with their particular interests.
Since the respective UNGA (1) and UNHRC (2) resolutions in 2010, State Members have been encouraged to adopt the HRtWS in their national legislation (e.
Indeed, the HRtWS must be considered together with the human right to a safe and healthy environment.
In the context of the SDGs' numerous timebased goals and the demand for rapid, measurable progress vis-a-vis the realisation of the HRtWS (among other human rights), critics have expressed doubt about the effectiveness of the recognition of these rights in this regard.
A third monitoring difficulty concerns assessing the resources that States invest into advancing the realisation of the HRtWS, since States are understandably not obligated to immediately fulfil all of the criteria of the HRtWS normative content, but instead to progressively realise this human right with their maximum available resources.
Moreover, monitoring of the HRtWS is also performed through certain UN mechanisms.
Similarly, the expansion of social movements could bring advances to the conquest of the HRtWS by reshaping public policies and reducing inequalities in access to WSSs.
Final considerations: the HRtWS and public policies