HRUPHigh-Risk Urban Problem
HRUPHuman Rights Union Party (Albania)
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Least square means of body weight changes were -53.89, -24.85 and -37.12 kg/d for LRUP, MRUP and HRUP respectively (Table 4); differences among treatments, blocks and treatments x block were not significant (P > 0.05).
Least square means of NEFA of plasma of the treatments LRUP, MRUP and HRUP were 0.60, 0.55, and 0.48 mM/lit (Table 4).
Elevated levels of these keton bodies in blood, milk, and urine are primary indices of ketosis [36,37,14], and since in this study, DMI increased by HRUP and NEFA concentration decreased, so it could be concluded, by increasing level of MP in early post partum period, to prevent incidence of fatty liver and ketosis.
HRUP = high RUP diet, MRUP = medium RUP diet, LRUP = low RUP diet, MUN = milk urea nitrogen, FM = fish meal, CGM = corn gluten meal, SBM = soybean meal, MP = metabolizable protein, NEB = negative energy balance, NEFA = non esterified fatty acids, [beta]HBA = beta hydroxy butyrate.
Nitrogen balance, whether expressed as g/d or % of N intake was higher (p<0.05) in buffaloes fed HRUP diet than those fed MRUP and LRUP diets (Table 4).
Energy balance was positive in early lactating buffaloes fed HRUP diet, however, it was negative in buffaloes fed MRUP and LRUP diets (Table 6).
Increased DMI by buffaloes fed HRUP diet might be attributed to sufficient supply of ruminal ammonia nitrogen for optimum rumen microbial proliferation which intern might have increased feed intake by producing more enzymes per unit of time in ruminant animals (Chumpawadee et al., 2006).
Higher milk yield in buffaloes fed HRUP diet was because of higher DMI.
The increased milk protein content in buffaloes fed HRUP diet was due to increased intake of RUP that might have increased supply of limiting amino acids or total amino acids to the mammary gland for protein synthesis.
Higher N intake in buffaloes fed HRUP diet than in those fed MRUP and LRUP diets was due to their higher DMI.
Positive energy balance in buffaloes fed HRUP diet was due to higher energy intake (23.76 Mcal/d) than those fed MRUP (19.68 Mcal/d) and LRUP (17.79 Mcal/d) diets.