HTLVsHuman T-Cell Lymphotropic Viruses
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In 2005, researchers discovered two (2) new HTLV types - HTLV-3 and HTLV-4.
HTLV 1 is endemic in some parts of the world (Southwestern Japan, South America, the Caribbean Basin, the Middle East, Australo - Melanesia, the West Indies, Jamaica), as well as equatorial Africa, (5) where West Africa lies.
Search terms were: Worldwide prevalence of HTLV, HTLV in Africa, HTLV in West Africa, HTLV subtypes, HTLV 3 and 4 in Africa, HTLV of African origin, HTLV seroindeterminate results, spread of HTLV.
(5) Most of the people diagnosed with HTLV were either born in--or had genetic affiliations with Afro--Caribbean and African origin, indicating that HTLV infections and/or transmission may be linked to human migration.
A large Canadian study documented this confusion among healthcare workers, where >90% of HTLV tests ordered by physicians were actually intended to be HIV tests (7).
Positive bands p19, p24 and GD21 without the presence of specific bands type rgp46-1 and rgp46-2 also were considered as positive HTLV.
Uncertain cases in the serology of HTLV infection are of the problems of blood transfusion centers around the world.
Evaluation of a new screening assay for HTLV 1 and 2 antibodies for large scale use.
DNA for PCR testing was available from a previous study in which plasma from 63 hunters showed a range of seroreactivity to HTLV antigens by Western blot (WB; Genelabs Diagnostics 2.4 kit [7]).
Peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA samples were available from a previous study of 63 NHP hunters who had a wide range of WB seroreactivity to HTLV (7).
Widespread exposure to a broad range of NHP body fluids and tissues encountered during hunting, butchering, or keeping primates as pets has been implicated in the emergence of 3 different retrovirus genera: HIV, HTLV, and, more recently, simian foamy virus (2-5,7,16,28,32).
However, PCR testing of DNA samples from Cameroon NHP hunters with broad HTLV WB patterns showed no evidence of STLV-3 (Cmo8699AB)-like infections.