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(8) HTSE first rose to prominence as an international issue in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
While HTSE has gained increasing media attention in the last few years, its prevalence is not a new problem.
(32) Traffickers lure their victims by exploiting "the dreams and fears of the poor" and by such means as "fraudulently advertising employment opportunities." (33) The key to the traffickers' success is the targeting of the individuals who are "the most vulnerable and marginalized in societypeople who are already struggling to survive." (34) This most marginalized segment of society consists of women and girls because of "their greater susceptibility to poverty, illiteracy, and lower social status," making it more difficult for women and girls to escape HTSE once they are enveloped in it.
definition of HTSE is relatively expansive compared to national definitions.
organizations and agencies, as well as other intergovernmental organizations" working on HTSE have accepted and use this definition.
Although there is no international consensus as to what constitutes exploitation, "most activists and scholars appear to accept the validity of some kind of a 'seriousness' threshold." (52) Due to the lack of a universally enforced definition of HTSE, not all situations that constitute HTSE under the U.N.
As with the HTSE, VHTR is the primary energy source of choice due to the high temperatures required for the decomposition of sulfuric acid.
One of the major R&D effort focuses upon experimental and theoretical studies on the planar solid oxide cell-based HTSE (Herring et al 2007).
LCA of the HTSE coupled to a VHTR for hydrogen production was performed by Utgikar and Thiesen (2006).
As mentioned above, the HTSE process has shown much promise for the commercial production of hydrogen necessary in a hydrogen economy.
Life cycle Global Warming Potentials of Hydrogen Production Processes Emissions C[O.sub.2]- equivalent/ Process kg [H.sub.2] Reference Steam Reforming 9000-12000 Koroneos et al (2004) of Methane HTSE 2000 Utgikar and Thiesen (2006) S-I Cycle 2500 Lattin and Utgikar (2009) ISPRA Mark 9 2515 Utgikar and Ward (2006) cycle
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