One team led by Jim Dunlop (University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom) used ALMA to obtain the first deep, homogeneous ALMA image of a region as large as the HUDF
field contains an estimated 10,000 galaxies.
The lack of information from ultraviolet light made studying galaxies in the HUDF
like trying to understand the history of families without knowing about the grade-school children," said principal investigator Harry Teplitz of Caltech in Pasadena, California.
The telescope devoted 600 hours--fully 10% of its observing time--to CANDELS for three years, surveying an area of sky 60 times larger than the HUDF
, albeit to brighter limiting magnitudes (about 27 for CANDELS compared to 30 for the HUDF
The team then combined these observations with 2009 HUDF
work to produce the new results.