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This may lead to more uncertainty in producing high quality HVFA concrete.
On the other hand, blending several sizes to obtain desired particle size distribution may not be practical for large volume application to produce HVFA concrete.
The aim of this study is to maximize the use of high calcium fly ash to produce high strength HVFA mortar.
HVFA mortar mixture was evaluated by replacing fly ash at 50%, 60%, and 70% of the cementitious material, by mass.
Setting time was measured on the fresh HVFA paste by using Vicat needle.
HVFA PCC has lower total cementing materials and water contents than TDOT Class D PCC, and is similar in material costs below a placement temperature of 85[degrees]F and cheaper at a placement temperature of 85[degrees]F and above.
"The results of the research show first that HVFA PCC meets all TDOT 604.03 Class D PCC property requirements," the authors conclude.
Therefore, this study focused on the compressive behavior of confined reinforced concrete (RC) columns that contain HVFA. Numerous confinement models are available in the literature [13-15] to evaluate the axial capacity and to predict the envelope of the stress-strain relationship for RC columns.
In addition, based on the experimental results, an analysis model was developed to predict the compressive behavior of RC columns that contain HVFA. Comparisons of the model results with the test results were used to calibrate the accuracy of the proposed analysis model for HVFA RC columns.
Similar failure patterns were observed for each specimen regardless of whether HVFA was present.
The ultimate load for the specimens, regardless of whether they contained HVFA, tended to decrease with an increase in the spacing of the transverse steel due to confining pressure.
The ratio of the yield load to the ultimate load for the specimens with OPC is in the range of 0.73 to 0.79, and the ratio of the yield load to the ultimate load for the specimens with HVFA is in the range of 0.75 to 0.84.
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