Universities represented at the conference included twelve large state HWCUs in the midwestern, western, and southwestern United States regions.
Moreover, for Black learners at HWCUs, as with the participants in the current study, CECs may offer an opportunity to better connect with the campus community by engaging with same-race peers, seeing themselves reflected in the curriculum, and acquiring anti-deficit knowledge about Blacks within the classroom (Adams, 2005; Carter, 2007).
Intercollegiate athletics play an important part in college life in HBCUs and HWCUs. When HBCUs were the only colleges for black athletes, many of their players advanced to professional athletics, and their varsity sports seemed to be more competitive.
Why does the selection of a president of an HBCU take six months to a year, when the time for such selection at HWCUs is barely two months?
Affirmative Action on campuses of HBCUs has changed the color of faculty and students therein, with little color change at HWCUs except in varsity or intercollegiate athletics.
Even the few dollars resulting from land-grant status at several HBCUs, which do not approach ten percent of the dollars given to HWCUs, are spent on priority programs that already have the lion-share of the institutional budgets.
Although they do not receive the amount of donations of most HWCUs, they have increased their foundation endowments to millions of dollars.
Since HWCUs have greater endowments, they receive greater matching dollars for their endowed chairs, that are held by outstanding leaders, to raise the academic bar on their campuses.
However, keeping the salaries of faculty comparable to those in HWCUs has been a serious problem.