Table 1: Wavelength analysis of the half width at half maximum (

HWHM) of cochineal at pH 12 and biosynthetic AgNPs at different initial volumes (0.1 and 0.4 ml) of the cochineal extract.

Caption: Figure 2: Dependence of collision

HWHM [gamma] on pressure of [H.sub.2]O.

The absorption band is red shifted and

HWHM increases from 83 to 132 nm with increase in exposure time to UV radiations due to the reduction in the particle size of silver NPs as calculated in Table 1.

The asymmetry in the observed profiles can be fit with the use of a split profile, wherein the two sides of the PSF are refined with independent shape and HWHM parameters.

Refineable parameters consist of the FWHM, or HWHM, and an exponent, m.

where [m.sub.0] is the mass of a free electron, [[epsilon].sub.0] the dielectric constant in free space, [gamma] the

HWHM of the frequency band centered at [[omega].sub.0], [[epsilon].sub.b] the real part of the dielectric constant of the bulk material of the QD's, [V.sub.QD] = (4[pi]/3)[a.sup.3] the volume of a single QD, and N = 2/[V.sub.QD] [26],

As a result, the EL spectrum was broadened towards higher energies by 200 meV or greater (

HWHM), and the broadening towards lower energies was reduced to 120 meV (

HWHM).

where [DELTA]v is the half width at half maximum (HWHM) bandwidth of the phase signal measured in hertz, as illustrated in Figure 7(c).

It is obvious from Figures 7(a)-7(c) that the HWHM bandwidths of both the in-phase signal, [[DELTA]v.sub.X], and the quadrature signal, [[DELTA]v.sub.Y], are equal and smaller than the HWHM bandwidth, [DELTA]v, of the phase-shift signal.

[x.sub.0] is the peak location of the distribution and [gamma] stands for the halfwidth at halfmaximum (

HWHM) of the distribution.

where I([rho], [sigma], R) is the intensity transmitted by an infinitesimal area at a distance [rho] from the center of the polycapillary collimator, [I.sub.0] is the total intensity transferred by the lens (i.e., the intensity measurable when the collimator slits are removed), [sigma] is the Half Width at Half Maximum (

HWHM) of the RIDF and R is the (outer) radius of the lens.

where [gamma] is the half-width at half maximum (

HWHM), H is the amplitude of the distribution centered at energy [E.sub.0].