By 2005, all countries/areas in the region had introduced at least three HepB
doses into national immunization schedules.
As of 2015, the annual incidence of new hepatitis B cases had declined by 88.5% since the first HepB
vaccine was licensed in 1981 and recommendations for its routine use were issued in 1982.
As shown in Figure 1, the lowest dropout rate was of 0.5%, between first dose of OPV, DPT, and HepB
and second dose OPV, DPT, and HepB
, with increasing dropout rates among the next doses.
Face-to-face interviews with the respondent or the respondent's parent were completed by trained staff by using standard questionnaires to obtain basic information, including sex, birthdate, ethnicity, birthplace, and HepB
vaccination history of the children <15 years of age (validated by parent-held certificate or village vaccination record).
After the introduction of Pentavalent vaccine (in November 2012) that includes DPT, HepB
V and Heamophyllus influenza (Hib) vaccines was received by children instead of DPT & HBV.
In the above literatures, most models involving HepB
vaccine strategy often assumed that the vaccine is completely effective in preventing the infection of vaccinated individuals.
The four main culprits are hepatitis B and C (hepB
and hepC), human papillomavirus (HPV), and Helicobacter pylori, which are collectively responsible for 1.9 million cases of liver, cervical and gastric cancer annually.
Hepatitis B (HepB
): The vaccine is a three-dose series with dose #1 followed a month later by dose #2, followed five months later by dose #3.
A previous study revealed that an additional dose of monovalent HepB
vaccine at birth did not affect the immunogenicity or tolerability of a DTPw-HepB-Hib pentavalent combination vaccine and that five doses of HepB
vaccine can be given in early childhood without impact on safety (26).
As the world moves closer to liquid combination vaccines (mixing even up to 5 components, e.g D, T, P, HepB
, and Hib), the administration of the Hib vaccine should with time be even more cost-effective for immunisation programmes in many countries.
With an annual birth cohort of approximately 15,000, Guyana succeeded in immunising more than 14,800 children in 2006 against Hib, HepB
, and diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.
(a) Blood: 4 HepB
(b) (+), HepC (+), HIV (-) C4 Drowning.