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An aliquot of the supernatant was mixed with DMEM containing 1 mmol/L IBMX and 25 mmol/L HEPES and then added to cells stably expressing human GC-A for 3 min at 37 [degrees]C to determine peptide bioactivity.
3] Nonstandard abbreviations: ANP, atrial natriuretic peptide; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; CNP, C-type natriuretic peptide; GC, guanylyl cyclase; NPR-C, natriuretic peptide receptor C; DMEM, Dulbecco modified Eagle medium; IBMX, 1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine; EC50, half-maximal effective concentration; IC50, half-maximal inhibitory concentration.
KEY WORDS: scallop, Chlamys varia, epinephrine, GABA, IBMX, settlement
In this study we described, for the first time, the effects of exposure to three chemical compounds, GABA, epinephrine and IBMX, at different concentrations and times of exposure, on the ability of black scallop larvae to initiate settlement.
Platelets are stabilized by inclusion of forskolin to increase CAMP concentration and IBMX to inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterase (30, 31).
4 buffered stabilizing solution was compared with and without forskolin/IBMX, forskolin and IBMX decreased measured ATP values at a constant stabilizing solution pH (14).
H-89 (Sigma, B1427) and IBMX (Sigma, I5879) were diluted in DMSO as stock solutions and added to the media to obtain the required concentrations, with DMSO<1% final solution.
sabdariffa; FBS, foetal bovine serum; TNF-ot, tumour necrosis factor-alpha; IGF1, insulin-like growth factor-1; IL-6, interleukin-6; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; IL-1a, interleukin-1 alpha; IL-lb, interleukin-1 beta; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; IBMX, 3-isobutyl 1-methylxanthine.
Furthermore, a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (a-MSH) and cAMP-elevating agents, such as forskolin and IBMX, through the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP-related element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor, promote an increase in the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a master regulator of the development and differentiation of melanocytes.
5 mM IBMX, and 1 [micro]M DEX after reaching confluence.
5mM IBMX and either 2mM glucose (basal secretion), 6, 10 or 16mM glucose (GSIS), or 2mM glucose plus 50mM [K.