NIEHS (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences), "ICCVAM
test method evaluation report: in vitro cytotoxicity test methods for estimating starting doses for acute oral systemic toxicity tests," NIH Publication no.
(23.) NICEATM-ICCVAM-Home, NAT'L TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM, http:// iccvam
.niehs.nih.gov/(last visited Aug.
. Inter-Agency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods, In Vitro Methods for Assessing Acute Systemic Toxicity, 2001, http://iccvam.niehs.nih.gov/docs/ FR/6649686.htm.
"Americans can take comfort in knowing that the ICCVAM
procedure will help ensure that toxicological testing is reliable and scientifically valid."
A new path forward: the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM
) and National Toxicology Program's Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM).
The US equivalent is ICCVAM
. According to the animal rights lobby PETA (People for Ethical Treatment of Animals), while ECVAM has assumed a pioneering role in validating alternative methods, ICCVAM
has been dragging its feet.
House of Representatives passed legislation that would make the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM
), a permanent committee of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
Information on the acceptance status of alternative methods was collected from the websites of ICCVAM
(Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods), EURL-ECVAM (European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing), JaCVAM (Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods), KoCVAM (Korean Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods), and OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) test guidelines, and the alternative methods that are already accepted and that will be adapted to the STSC in China are listed in Table 1.
In 1997, the 15-member Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM
) was established.
The test sample is incubated with the blood or cell lines and after a 6- to 24-hour incubation period, the concentration of cytokines (IL-1[beta] and IL-6) released during exposure is quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (ICCVAM
Furthermore, there is growing societal pressure to avoid animal testing and to develop alternative approaches that replace, reduce, or refine the use of animals in toxicity testing [Hartung 2009; Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM
) Authorization Act of 2000].
The procedure was published as INVITTOX protocol number 47 (Spielmann, 1992; Steiling et al., 1999) and is one of the alternatives supported by EURL-ECVAM (1) for the in vitro study of ocular irritancy (ICCVAM
, 2007) that is already widely applied to ocular products (Fernandez-Ferreiro et al., 2014).