Are Integrated Development and Conservation Projects (ICDPs
) Sustainable?, World Development 23(7): 1073-84.
Trophy hunting as a form of sustainable use is a strong economic instrument that not only incentivizes conservation but also contributes to rural development through integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP
) in most tropical countries [6, 29,30].
Often nature turned out to be, as Duke University biologist and passionate conservationist John Terborgh put it, "worth more dead than alive." The economics of ICDPs
often didn't make sense.
(2001), Moving beyond Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDPs
) to achieve Biodiversity Conservation.
people who bear the cost of conservation." (45) CBC, like ICDPs
Although many conservation organizations have realized this since the mid eighties and have responded with the implementation of so-called Integrated Conservation and Development Projects (ICDP
), the assumptions of most ICDP
programs have not really deviated from the underlying assumption that local people and their livelihood practices constitute the most important threat to biodiversity conservation (Hughes and Flintan 2001).
We do not model all the changes prospectively induced by ICDPs
. In particular, we ignore the potential for markedly more cooperative (and less myopic) individual behavior, both because there is no broad-based evidence of such changes occurring in African wildlife ICDPs
(Barrett and Arcese 1995; Gibson and Marks 1995), and because this would entail a notably more complex, game theoretic modeling strategy which would overtax the limited empirical evidence presently available to parameterize and calibrate a simulation model.
Tapping from Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDPs
On the ground, ICDPs
were generally paternalistic, lacking in expertise, and one-sided--driven largely by the agendas of the conservationists, with little indigenous input.
Examples include the rural development programs of the 1970s and 1980s and the more recent integrated conservation and development projects (ICDPs
The need to resolve conflicts between industrial forestry, biodiversity conservation and fisheries in the forests of the Pacific Northwest of the USA led to the emergence of principles for ecosystem management which formalized many of the de facto practices of ICDPs
. Ecosystem approaches were prevalent in the 1990s and their underlying concepts influenced the thinking behind of the CBFP.