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Moreover, these cycles serve as a standardized measurement procedure for the evaluation and certification of new vehicle models, the monitoring of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption for ICEVs, and the estimation of the driving range and energy consumption per unit mileage for EVs [3,19].
Second, the urban driving cycle in this paper is based on EVs, but general international standard driving cycles are based on traditional ICEVs. The start-up acceleration of EVs is obviously higher than that of ICEVs due to the low-speed constant torque characteristics of the motor [53, 54].
The results indicate that the Xi'an EV urban driving cycle reflects a more aggressive driving characteristic than other driving cycles, mainly due to the difference in the start-up acceleration and regenerative braking characteristics of EVs and ICEVs. Therefore, a representative EV driving cycle should be used for energy optimization, state of charge estimation, and driving mileage prediction for EVs, as well as the evaluation and certification of new EV models.
383km in US, 247km in EU), declining EV powertrain costs (2016-2020: $16,201 to $11,889) rising ICEV powertrain costs (EU / US), still supportive subsidies (US), EV sales targets (China), falling diesel sales / residual vehicle pricing (EU) and reduced EV charging infrastructure concerns," it added.
* They can offer better energy diversification than ICEVs, especially those gridable hybrids can be refueled by liquid fuels and electricity which have excellent infrastructure support.
* They can offer higher well-to-wheel energy efficiency (namely from oil well to wheel motion) than ICEVs.
This auxiliary system can readily be extended to conventional ICEVs.
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