Impacts of the Fuel Economy Gain of the LOF GCI ICEV and the C[O.
The MPGGE fuel economy gain relative to the E10 SI ICEV is a key parameter to the per-mile-based WTW results.
fuel property) because refinery-related GHG emissions (excluding the crude recovery stage) only account for <7% of the WTW GHG emissions of the LOF GCI ICEV (Figure 5 and Figure 6).
Figure 7 and Figure 8 show the impacts of the fuel economy gain of the LOF GCI ICEV relative to the E10 SI ICEV and the LOF C[O.
4 g/MJ and FE gain of the LOF GCI in the range of 15-40%), the LOF GCI ICEV is estimated to have lower WTW GHG emissions and fossil energy use than the modern E10 SI ICEV.
For the FE gain of the LOF GCI ICEV, a literature review of the driving-cycle-based studies about the gasoline-like fuels combusted in the GCI engines is conducted.
Through the literature review of gasoline-like fuels combusted in the GCI engines, the fuel economy of the LOF GCI ICEV is determined to be ~125% of the baseline E10 SI ICEV.
The per-mile-based WTW GHG emissions of the LOF GCI ICEV are 22% and 9% lower than those of the E10 SI ICEV and diesel CIDI ICEV, respectively.
The per-mile-based WTW fossil energy use of the LOF GCI ICEV is 18% and 6% lower than that of the E10 SI ICEV and diesel CIDI ICEV, respectively.
A two-variable sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the WTW GHG emissions of the LOF GCI ICEV could be reduced with the increase of the MPGGE fuel economy gain and the decrease of the LOF C[O.