On January 2, 1993, the ICFY met for negotiations with the leaders of the Bosnian Serbs, the Bosnian Croats, and Serbia.(56) Vance and Owen submitted a peace plan consisting of four proposals:(57)
The next attempt at peace was under the Invincible Plan (hereinafter IP).(73) The thrust of the IP was a proposed Constitutional Agreement, reflecting the Cutileiro Principles and ICFY option (3).(74) It called for three predominantly ethnic provinces loosely governed by a weak union.(75) Although accepting its principles, the Muslims quickly rejected the IP on territorial grounds: it allocated only thirty percent of Bosnia to the Muslims, compared to thirty-six percent under the Vance-Owen Plan.(76)
The Federation Constitution divided the Federation's eight cantons between two groups;(86) four cantons were to be Muslim (Bosniac), two were to be Croat, and two were to consist of a mixture of Muslims and Croats.(87) Consequently, the Constitution restored the Vance-Owen Plan and ICFY option (2), albeit between only two parties.(88)
The formation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter BH Federation) between the Muslims and Croats still left the Serbs out of the peace process.(89) As a result, in May 1994, the United States, Russia, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom formed the Contact Group to work alongside the ICFY.(90) After significant negotiations, the Contact Group presented the Bosnian Serbs and the BH Federation with a proposed map of Bosnia based on a 51/49 division of the land in favor of the BH Federation.(91) The Bosnian Serbs, however, rejected the proposal on the basis of the placement and quality of the land allocated to the Serbs.(92)
Despite the failure of the territorial negotiations, the Contact Group informally proposed a text for a Union Constitution.(93) The constitution was an ICFY option (3) construct(94) limited to two parties: the Muslim-Croat BH Federation(95) and the Bosnian Serb Republika Srpska(96) (hereinafter RS).(97) Because the Bosnian Serbs did not accept the map agreements, however, no comprehensive agreement on the constitutional principles could be reached.(98)
Secretary of State Richard Holbrook, resulted in two fragmented constitutional agreements.(100) These agreements, between the BH Federation and the RS, were similar to the Contact Group proposal, ICFY option (3), with details to be finalized later.(101) This ultimately led to the Dayton Peace Accords.
The ICFY was also known as the Vance-Owen Negotiations and the Geneva Conference.
(51.) Vance and Owen were the co-chairmen of the ICFY Steering Committee.
(94.) ICFY option (3) provided for three ethnically characterized "republics" loosely confederated in a "union." See supra Part III.A.