10 (Table 4); hence both the undergraduate and postgraduate samples demonstrated the criterion-related validity of the IEIS on the categorical criterion of degree program.
To test if the IEIS could replicate prediction of self-efficacy, the instrument administered to the undergraduate sample detailed in Study 4 contained Chen, Gully, and Eden's (2001) 8-item General Self-Efficacy Scale, which prove to have a reliability of .
To see if the IEIS predicted internal locus of control, Chen et al.
The IEIS had a criterion-related validity coefficient of--.
To test the IEIS for factorial stability across populations by nationality and occupation, and to examine possible unit nonresponse bias, it was incorporated in an online instrument sent to an international convenience sample of 1,697.
To help establish cross-cultural measurement stability of the IEIS, its factorial invariance was examined across groups divided into native and non-native English speakers.
The IEIS has been developed to incorporate high content validity, plus broad applicability across populations by nationality, age, and occupation.
While the IEIS has proven to have good psychometric properties for the different validation samples of this study, which provides a good basis for generalization to other populations, further validation in more specific and larger samples, perhaps discretely by nationality, age, and occupation, would be beneficial to confirming generalizability.
Although the IEIS has proven to possess criterion-related validity using a series of criterion variables suggested by prior research, over the longer run the best test of criterion-related validity is whether or not the scale predicts the setting up of new business ventures because those exhibiting a high degree of entrepreneurial intent might be expected to be more likely to set up new firms than those who do not.