When natural IELs
are present, however, the researchers found that they limit the availability of a type of hormones, incretin GLP-1, that help speed up metabolism.
The histological finding of increased intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs
), is recognized as one of the important feature potentially consistent with CD, however, by itself, this finding lacks specificity.
are scattered between absorptive cells and goblet cells.
The total count of CD3 in the epithelial layer showed that patients with NCGS had a density of IELs
(18.5 [+ or -] 6.4 cells/100 enterocytes) lower than celiac disease (40.8 [+ or -] 8.1 cells/100 enterocytes) and higher than negative controls (11.9 [+ or -] 2.8 cells/100 enterocytes) (p < 0.001), as shown in Figure 1(a).
Intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs
) maintain intestinal mucosa homeostasis and serve as an immunological barrier against a wide range of infectious agents in the gut lumen.
We considered that intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs
) might be suitable for this purpose because they reside within the intestinal epithelia and function as a first line of defense against infections.
and spleen cells were stained using monoclonal antibodies against the following surface markers: CD4 (T helper lymphocytes) (Lillehoj et al., 1988a), CD8 (cytotoxic T lymphocytes) (Lillehoj et al., 1988a), TCR1 ([gamma][delta] T cell receptor) (Chen et al., 1986), TCR2 ([alpha][beta] TCR) (Chen et al., 1986), BU1 (B cells) (Rothwell et al., 1996), MHC2 (antigen-presenting cells) (Lillehoj et al., 1988b) and analyzed by flow cytometry with a FACSCalibur instrument (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA).
Those protective IELs
exist as a network beneath the barrier of epithelial cells covering inner and outer body surfaces, where they are important as a first line of defense and in wound repair.
Mild villous atrophy (grade 3a) was seen in 25% of these patients, and 15% of them showed only an increase in the IEL
number without a significant reduction in villi height (grade 2 lesions).
Let (tr, s, IEL
) denote a triple, where [V.sub.0] = tr ??
When rectal and terminal ileal biopsy specimens of the IBS and control groups were compared, the number of serotonin-positive cells, IELs
, CD20+ cells, and CD8+ cells showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) (Table 2).
(3, 19) Described findings in the jejunum (13) and terminal ilium (8, 16) include villous blunting, subepithelial collagen thickening, increased IELs
, crypt apoptosis, crypt hyperplasia, and lamina propria chronic inflammation with increased eosinophils.