(5.) History of IGAD, http://www.igad.org/.Eritrea joined the IGADD
in 1993 at independence and withdrew from the IGAD in 2006 for political reasons (differences with Ethiopia over Somalia).
In the summer of 1999, the United States, concerned by the growing role of a joint Egyptian-Libyan peace initiative in Sudan and the possibility that it might displace the U.S.-backed IGADD
peace-making efforts, tried to reinforce the effectiveness of IGADD
This prompted the IGADD
mediators to write their own Declaration of Principles (DOP), whose contents shocked the government and pleased the SPLM.
At the governmental level, this has led the GHAI to encourage the revitalization of a regional organization, IGADD
(Inter-Governmental) Authority on Drought and Development) which governments in the Horn hope will serve as a central forum through which to address regional problems.
South Sudan was there during the 1994 IGADD
Declaration of Principles.
In early April, Norway, a member of the "Friends of IGADD
" group (along with the Netherlands, Canada, Great Britain and the United States), offered to mediate in the Sudanese civil war and help Khartoum restore relations with Asmara.
Lam Akol and his Southern colleagues in Khartoum who insisted that the "Libyan-Egyptian Initiative" of 12th July 2001 must conform to the IGADD
(later, IGAD) mediated Declaration of Principles (DoP) of 20th July 1994 between the Government of the Republic of the Sudan (referred to as the GoS), the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Sudan People's Liberation Army and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Sudan People's Liberation Army-United (both referred to as the SPLM/A and SPLM/A-United, respectively).
The committee of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD
) comprising Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya and Uganda, formed three years ago under the chairmanship of Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi to mediate in the Sudanese conflict, has recently been frustrated in its work by the deterioration in the bilateral relations between Khartoum and two of its members, Eritrea and Uganda, both of whom have cut their diplomatic ties with Khartoum.
The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in Eastern Africa was created in 1996 to supersede the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD
) which was founded in 1986.
The states member of the Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD
) agreed in Addis Ababa, on 18 April 1995, to transform their east African organization and redefine its objectives by expanding its areas of regional co-operation.