Alongside indications of involvement of some CAMs in neuroplasticity that will be discussed in this review, members of the IgSF superfamily include many genes involved in immune function and other signaling pathways, including major histocompatibility complex class I and II immunoglobulins, T receptor complex proteins, lymphocyte surface glycoproteins, virus receptors, tumor markers, and growth factor receptors.
NRCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule or NgCAM-related cell adhesion molecule; see Figure 1) belongs to the L1 family of IgSF CAMs and is composed of six Ig-like domains, five FN3 domains in its extracellular region, and a cytoplasmic region composed of approximately 110 amino acid residues .
Costimulatory molecules are broadly divided into those belong to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily (IgSF
) and the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily (TNFSF) based on their phenotypic and signalling features.
This is a high-quality integrated knowledge resource specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG), T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility complex (MHC), immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF
), major histocompatibility complex superfamily (MhcSF) and related proteins of the immune system (RPI) of human and other vertebrate species.
In the preclinical study, Fc fusion proteins incorporating these evolved immunomodulatory IgSF
domains were tested in vitro and in vivo.
Indeed, in EAE and MS the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF
), molecules intercellular CAM-1 (ICAM-1/CD54), vascular CAM-1 (VCAM-1/CD106) and activated leucocyte CAM (ALCAM/CD166) are all upregulated by vascular endothelium [26-28].