Of the four sources of Islamic jurisprudence, the Quran and hadith were reinterpreted, and ijma
and qiyas were fundamentally transformed.
Since there is no explicit textual identification of the 'illah, nor is there any ijma
' on the issue, an attempt to derive the 'illah through ijtihad must be made.(197) Before such an 'illah can be derived, specific characteristics of the factual circumstances that are present when the two to one ratio is applied would need to be considered.
This labor shortage is due to the "better economic condition" of workers, says IJMA
From the perspective of Islam, the defining traits of the Guppees are reminiscent of the respect for ijma
(consensus) and sunna (tradition) that has characterized the history of the Sunni, the largest and most pluralistic of the Moslem sects.
None the less, the setting of certain boundaries to the limits of religious thought and practice has been possible where two conditions exist: first (and more importantly), where the "consensus" (ijma
') of the scholars and of the community itself as to what constitutes permissible thought and behaviour has been reasonably firm and precise; and secondly, where an assertive or restrictive consensus has been wedded to (or at least has cohabited with) a temporal power which was willing and able to enforce the dictates of the scholars.(37) Through such mechanisms, informal though they may be, behaviour and the public expression of religious opinion could be regulated.
Suppose that over the course of time the consensus of this community (ijma
) is that giving should really be a voluntary act.
Ijtehad and Ijma
of leading men who are not necessarily elected but of a highly knowledgeable status.
While such channels were once constituted by international cosmopolitan networks of 'ulema (religious scholars), by turuq (sufi brotherhoods) and by the Madhahib (major schools of legal thought), these mechanisms are inadequate for the challenges faced by the contemporary Muslim world.(27) Further, since many of the issues facing Muslims concern the Umma as a whole, a pan-Islamic communication system is needed so that these questions can be resolved via ijma
' (consensus), resulting from an Umma-wide dialogue, which presupposes an atmosphere of free debate without coercion or the manipulation of information.(28) The very existence of the Umma as a durable united community thus depends on open channels of communication.
Such an assembly would make sure that the political and economic interests of the polity are advanced according to the progressive spirit of its faith and a consensus (Ijma
) is reached which is representative of the electorate.
Veereswari: An Introduction To Fuzzy Neutrosophic Topological Spaces, IJMA
, Vol.8(3), (2017), 144-149.
Ibn Fudi backed his arguments with citations of the verses of the Qur'an, the Sunna and Ijma
Islam is practiced based on four primary sources of Islamic teaching; (1) Qur'an, with 114 surah/ chapters (2) Sunnah/ Hadith/ Prophetic Tradition (3) Ijma
' (unanimous consensus among jurist/ ulama' ) and (4) Qiyas (decision by analogy) (Rehman and Ahmedov, 2011).